Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium

Website Map
Description of Website
Distribution Maps
Acknowledgements - References
Request for photographs
Disclaimer and Feedback

Description of Website.

This website attempts to present information to the botanists and general public about the plants growing in Wisconsin. The site is divided into several areas. Natural Communities, Ethnobotany, Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Lichens.

The Natural Communities section is the work of Dr. Emmet Judziewicz- professor and herbarium director at UW-Stevens Point, Eric J. Epstein and Elizabeth A. Spencer- botanists for the Wis. Dept. of Natural Resources- Bureau of Endangered Resources. Their extensive knowledge and photographic archives make this an extremely valuable resource. This is an area that has long been neglected. It attempts to bring together all the various aspects of botany to paint a portrait of the different habitats included in our state.

The Ethobotanical section gives information on the history and uses of many of our plant from written sources and also from the oral tradition of the Great Lakes Ojibwa as compiled by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission.

The Vascular Plants has browse list by Family, Genus, or Common Name along with a Name search.  There is also a list by Category (IE. Wildflower, Tree, Shrub, etc.) of taxa from Wisconsin. The species list, sortable by Family or Taxon,  includes a link to a simple criteria "check-off" identification guide for each categories of vascular plants. The genera list of the resulting families matching the criteria shows a thumbnail photo of each genus, a link to the distribution maps gallery, a brief description distinguishing that genus, and links to Google searches. In addition, the Wildflower category has a choice of flower color. The Grass section includes the drawing for all the grasses  by Agnes Chase from Norman C. Fassett's Grasses of Wisconsin. Many of the photographs are courtesy of Wisconsin State Herbarium.

The Species list by genus has the name, common name, synonyms and, when available, a thumbnail photo.

Each Species Detail page has, when available: a thumbnail map, photograph, synonym list, descriptions of the plant including status, size, flower, stem, leaf, fruit, blooming times, botanical name derivation, and  links to ethobotanical uses, additional photographs, natural community information, detail distribution maps, direct links for more information, and Google searches.

Bryophytes section is just a beginning of a site devoted to the Bryophytes of Wisconsin. This will be expanded in the future with the help of Dr. Virginia Freire of UW-Stevens Point and Kevin Lyman, Milwaukee Public Museum.

Other features:

    Botany News/Events contains articles of interest to the botanical enthusiast in Wisconsin as well as a listing of upcoming events.

    The Taxonomy of Flowering Plants is a reproduction of the text by Robert Freckmann to accompany the 2nd edition of Gleason and Cronquits Manual of Vascular Plants used in Botany 432 classes. It links directly to the detail pages of many species as well as adding family descriptions at that level. There are also several interactive keys.

Distribution Maps

The information used to generate the distribution maps comes form 2 sources. The WISCOMP database and the original hand drawn maps from the Wisconsin Floristic Atlas Project. WISCOMP contains all the label data entered from the Wisconsin plant specimens in  collections of herbaria from University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire, Green Bay, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Platteville, Stevens Point, Superior as well as from Milwaukee Public Museum, Morton Arboretum, University of Minnesota, Southeast Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission, and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The WISCOMP maps are updated as new information becomes available either from new collections, from the entry of specimen label data from existing collections, or from new determinations of existing database records.

Since the original hand drawn maps from the Wisconsin Floristic Atlas reflect specimen information from a wide variety of sources not easily obtained, the information has been retained. In the future, as the WISCOMP database grows, the data will probably no longer be reflected in these maps since a dot cannot be traced to a specific specimen.

As new maps replace the older ones, a yellow triangle will denote those counties that have specimen collection information only from the Wisconsin Floristic Atlas and not in the WISCOMP database.

Acknowledgements - References

All of the nomenclature of the vascular plant is from the Checklist of the Vascular Plants by Mark Wetter et. al., University of Wisconsin -Madison Herbarium. The distribution maps are from data compiled over the years principally by  Theodore Cochrane and Hugh Iltis and currently the WISCOMP database from University of Wisconsin- Madison, Green Bay, Stevens Point, Superior; Milwaukee Public Museum; and others. The photographs are from many photographers.

The Bryophyte nomenclature is from Dr. Virginia Freire of UW-Stevens Point and Kevin Lyman, Milwaukee Public Museum.

The original idea for a simple flower search came from the curiosity of Earl Mihlbauer. His need to find "that yellow flower that grow in the woods" has plagued me for several years. So Earl, this is for you! Thanks.

The sources for the botanical name definitions are from California Plant Names, Word Meanings and Name Derivations


Borman, Susan, Robert Korth, Jo Temte. 1997. Through the Looking Glass... A Field Guide to Aquatic Plants. Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources pub. FH-207-97, Madison, WI.

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Hon. Addison Brown. 1913. Reprinted in three volumes by Dover Publications in 1970. New York, N.Y.

Coffey, Timothy. 1993. The History and Folklore of North American Wildflowers. Houghton Mifflin Company.

Coombes, Allen J. 1985. Dictionary of Plant Names: Timber Press, Portland, Oregon

Dictionary of Botanical Epithets 

Fernald, Merrit Lyndon. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth (Centennial) Edition- Illustrated. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon

Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist.  1991.  Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd Ed. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 910 pp.

Harvard University's Index of Botanists. Searchable index.

Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln & M. L. Fernald.  1908.  Gray’s Manual of Botany.  7th Ed. rearranged and extensively revised. American Book Company, New York

Rundkel, Sylvan T. & Alvin F. Bull. 1979. Wildflowers of Illinois Woodlands. Wallace Homestead Book Co., Des Moines, Iowa

Rundkel, Sylvan T. & Dean M. Roosa. 1989. Wildflowers of the Tallgrass Prairie: The Upper Midwest. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa

Stearn, William T. 1972. Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names for Gardeners: Cassell Publishers Limited, London, England



 These data and maps are copyrighted to the Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.  The Herbarium shall remain the sole and exclusive owner of all rights, title, and interest in and to all specifically copyrighted information created and posted for inclusion in this system. Use and reproduction of these data and/or maps is authorized for educational or other noncommercial purposes without prior permission from the copyright holder but acknowledgment must be cited as Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. Wisconsin Plants web site (  Use or reproduction of the data and/or maps for commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holders. Please e-mail the Herbarium ( for permission requests. See Photographer Information for permission to use images.

Disclaimer and Feedback

Although the Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium makes every attempt to ensure that the information contained in its databases is correct, it assumes no responsibility for inaccuracies or omissions in these data sets. Neither the Herbarium nor any of its employees shall be held liable for any improper or incorrect use of the information described and/or contained herein and assumes no responsibility for anyone's uses of the information. The Freckmann Herbarium will not be held responsible for any consequence of the use or misuse of these data by any individual or organization. Changes may be periodically made to the information herein; these changes may or may not be incorporated in any new version of the publication(s).  If you have obtained data from an outside agency based on UW-Stevens Point Herbarium's holdings, be aware that electronic data can be altered subsequent to original distribution.  Data can also quickly become out-of-date.  If you find any errors or omissions, we encourage you to report them to the Herbarium (  ).

Botany News/Events
Book We Recommend
Historical Botanists
Other Links
Botanical Club of Wisconsin (off site)
UW-Stevens Point Biology Dept.
Plants of Wisconsin
Vascular Plants
Natural Communities
Botany News/Events
Other Links
Lichens (off site)   
Tom Volk's Fungi (off site)
Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
                          Vascular Plants
Browse by: Identification Guides
Family Wildflowers
Genus Trees
Common Names Shrubs
Search by: Vines
Names Aquatic-Semi aquatic
Specimens Ferns - Fern Allies
Blooming Times Grasses, Sedges, or Rushes
County & Status Other Resources  
Town Range Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
  WI Checklist & CofC Values
Browse by:
Common Name
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