Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point

Vascular Plants

Plants of Wisconsin


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Natural Communities
Keyword: Emergent Aquatic

Click on community name for photo gallery.

Emergent aquatic
These open, marsh, lake, riverine and estuarine communities with permanent standing water are dominated by robust emergent macrophytes, in pure stands of single species or in various mixtures. Dominants include cat-tails (Typha spp.), bulrushes (particularly Scirpus acutus, S. fluviatilis, and S. validus), bur-reeds (Sparganium spp.), giant reed (Phragmites australis), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata), water-plantains (Alisma spp.), arrowheads (Sagittaria spp.), and the larger species of spikerush such as (Eleocharis smallii).

Emergent aquatic - wild rice
This open community is an emergent macrophyte type, with wild rice (Zizania aquatica or Z. palustris) as the dominant species. The substrate usually consists of poorly-consolidated, semi-organic sediments. Water fertility is low to moderate, and a slow current is present. Wild rice beds have great cultural significance to native peoples, and are important wildlife habitats.

Lake-- deep, hard, drainage

Lake-- deep, hard, seepage

Lake--deep, soft, drainage

Lake--deep, soft, seepage

Lake--deep, very soft, seepage

Lake--hard bog



Lake--shallow, hard, drainage

Lake--shallow, hard, seepage

Lake-shallow, soft, seepage

Lake--shallow, very hard drainage (marl)

Lake--shallow-soft, drainage

Lake--soft bog



Spring pond

Offsite resources:
Virginia Kline's collection of the Vegetation of Wisconsin
Michigan Natural Features Inventory Community descriptions

Vascular Plants

Plants of Wisconsin


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