Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants

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Plants of Wisconsin

Vascular Plants

Winter Key to Some Common Genera of Deciduous Woody Plants of the Upper Midwest

Glossary drawings

1a.

 

Leaf scars opposite, nearly opposite, or in whorls of 3 or more

2

1b.

 

Leaf scars alternate or elongate shoots (sometimes clustered or nearly opposite at the tips or on slow-growing shoots)

21

 

2a.

Climbing or straggling vines with weak wood

3

 

2b.

Erect trees or shrubs

4

3a.

 

Leaf petioles persisting; internodes solid; stem with several prominent ridges

Clematis

3b.

 

No petioles present in winter; internodes hollow; stem not prominently ridged

Lonicera

 

4a.

Leaf scars in whorls of 3 or more at most nodes; twigs stout with somewhat swollen nodes

Catalpa

 

4b.

Leaf scars generally opposite; nodes not swollen

5

5a.

 

Twigs and buds densely covered with silvery-white peltate scales

Shepherdia

5b.

 

Twigs smooth or covered only with hairs, not with dense peltate scales

6

 

6a.

Vascular bundle scars one, or very numerous and joined in a line or crescent

7

 

6b.

Vascular bundle scars 3-7, separate and distinct

12

7a.

 

Leaf scars ending in 2 prominent lines running down green, slender twigs; pith hollow or chambered; buds football shaped with thin scales

Forsythia

7b.   Leaf scars never forming more than weak lines down stem; pith solid or pulpy, but not chambered; buds of various shapes 8

 

8a.

Twigs greenish or reddish, often with 2-4 wings

Euonymus

 

8b.

Twigs gray or brown, not winged

9

9a.

 

Leaf scars prominently raised and connected by distinct stipular scars encircling twig

Symphoricarpos

9b.

 

Leaf scars not prominently raised; stipular scars faint or absent

10

 

10a.

Some twigs tipped with short  thorns; buds appressed to twigs, black, and acute

Rhamnus

 

10b.

No thorns present; buds spreading or obtuse

11

11a.

 

Bundle scars in crescent or U shape; buds solitary, broadly rounded; terminal bud rarely missing

Fraxinus

11b.

 

Bundle scars in a straight line; buds often in 3’s, elongate, pointed; terminal bud often missing

Syringa

 

12a.

Buds imbedded under the leaf scars, scarcely visible until late winter

Philadelphus

 

12b.

Buds apparently above leaf axils

13

 [Page 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] Glossary drawings


         
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