Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium

Excluded Taxa

 The floristic listing of a species is relatively easy, but to verify its identification, its correct name, and its natural occurrence within a state or region can be quite difficult. Not surprisingly, many mistaken reports have appeared in the literature, and for that reason we have prepared this list of Excluded Taxa.

More often than not, excluded taxa are due to nomenclatural changes over the years, such as the discovery that a certain name has been misapplied, or simply errors in identification. One problem needs to be singled out as being especially acute in Wisconsin, where several of our earliest collectors were particularly prone to making specimens (usually without supplying any information as to their specific location, habitat, or status) of cultivated plants, garden escapes, and rare weedy adventives, some of which have never been collected in the state since. Whether they liked to collect weeds and garden plants in general, and in habitats such as along railroad tracks, in coal yards, and harbors in particular, is hardly open to question. In any case, many of the 80- to 140-year-old C. Goessl, T. J. Hale, and H. and G. Skavlem specimens which some botanists might be inclined to accept as part of the Wisconsin flora have been excluded by us because of these collectors’ inconsistent habits in labeling their specimens and their penchant for collecting garden taxa, such as dahlias, delphiniums, and viburnums. Those that are undoubtedly horticultural have not been included in this list, especially if they could not survive the cold Wisconsin winters.

Acalypha virginica L.,Virginia copper-leaf, Virginia three-seeded-mercury
This southern species, listed by Curtis (1959) as part of his "exposed cliff" community, does not occur in Wisconsin. From time to time, this name has been misapplied to A. rhomboidea, to which this report is no doubt referable (Richardson et al., 1988).

Adenocaulon bicolor Hook., American trail-plant
Although this western species is disjunct to the upper Great Lakes region (e.g., Isle Royale), it has never been collected in Wisconsin. The report in Curtis (1959) no doubt should be referred to Petasites sagittatus, which has very similar leaves.

Adiantum aleuticum (Rupr.) Paris, Aleutian maidenhair fern, western maidenhair fern
Although once considered to occur, rarely, in Wisconsin (as A. pedatum var. aleuticum; see Tryon et al., 1940, 1953), the geographical distribution of this taxon as now understood lies far to the north of our state (see Flora of North America Vol. 2).

Agrimonia eupatoria L., church-steeples, medicinal agrimony
The scientific name of this Eurasian species, reported by Fernald (1950: 867) from "…waste places…Mass., Wisc. and Minn.," was formerly misapplied to our A. gryposepala or A. striata. In any case, the species has never been found in Wisconsin (Mason & Iltis, 1958).

Agrostis capillaris L., colonial bent grass, Rhode Island bent grass
This delicate European grass is widely cultivated but doubtfully spontaneous in Wisconsin, for of our two herbarium sheets one (16 Jun 1958, W.O. Kuehnel s.n., WIS) came from a lawn (as did the only other specimen by that collector, also a lawn grass); and the other (18 Oct 1973, R. Boyer & L. Hammen s.n., MIL) is so poor that is seems well to wait for better material before admitting this species to our flora.

Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Eurasian water-plantain
All Wisconsin specimens are referable to the native species, either A. subcordatum or A. triviale. Alisma plantago-aquatica(sensu stricto) is an Eurasian taxon.

Amsinckia tessellata A.Gray, bristly fiddle-neck, devil's-lettuce
There is only a single C. Goessl collection (Jul 1903, s.n., WIS), from "waste place in coal yard, Sheboygan," of this widespread western species, mixed on the same sheet with A. lycopsoides, another western adventive.

Antennaria solitaria Rydb., southern single-headed pussy-toes
A specimen (13 Sep 1958, W. Witt s.n., WIS) from Bear Bluff, Jackson County, has been verified by specialists (e.g., G. L. Stebbins) but never recollected at that site despite searching. However, it is far out of range and probably erroneously labeled as to locality by a student who just a month earlier had traveled through the southern states, where this species is not uncommon.

Arabis hirstua (L.) Scop. var. glabrata Torrey & A.Gray, hairy rock-cress, mountain rock-cress, western rock-cress
Two Fassett collections (6 Sep 1930, 13369; 2 Sep 1930, 13457, both WIS) from damp cliffs in Grant County, in the unglaciated Driftless Area, and misidentified by Hopkins (1937) as Arabis pycnocarpa M.Hopkins var. glabrata (Torrey & A.Gray) M.Hopkins, were later correctly identified by Rollins (1941) as our common A. hirsuta var. adpressipilis.

Arenaria patula Michx., Slender sandwort
This southern species reported for Wisconsin (Wetter, et al, 2001) has on further investigation not been verified as occurring in the state. No voucher specimen nor literature report has been found to support its occurance.

Argemone mexicana L., Mexican poppy, Mexican prickly poppy
All Wisconsin specimens previously identified as A. mexicana that we have examined have proven to be A. albiflora.

Aristolochia tomentosa Sims, pipe-vine, woolly Dutchman's-pipe
This southern vine spreads slightly by vegetative means from local gardens, as in Dane County (26 Aug 1987, J.W. Thomson s.n., WIS), but, hardly frost hardy, it is unlikely to become part of Wisconsin's flora.

Arnoseris minima (L.) Schweigg. & Körte, dwarf nipplewort, lamb-succory
This adventive from Europe has been reported by the Wisconsin DNR as being wild in Wisconsin, but no voucher specimen has been submitted for verification.

Artemisia abrotanum L., garden sagebrush, southernwood
In Wisconsin this is a rare escape or garden plant represented by four collections, two that say gardens on the label, including the Racine record (s.d., T.J. Hale s.n., WIS) mapped by Mickelson and Iltis (1966) and Swink and Wilhelm (1994), one from a former homesite in Sheboygan County (14 Jun 1969, M.A. Piehl s.n., WIS), and one from Sheboygan labeled "Road-Side" by C. Goessl (09 Sep 1903, s.n., WIS).

Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal, pawpaw
There was a grove of this small tree at Potosi, Grant County, according to Mather (1897), but no specimen has been seen from this location. The one herbarium record ("S.W. Wis.", s.d., J. Clark s.n., WIS [ex Herbarium Ripon College]) is rejected as too indefinite and unreliable, as are almost all of this man's collections.

Aster schreberi Nees, Schreber's aster Gleason and Cronquist (1991)
Attributed this colonial, big-leaved aster to eastern Wisconsin, but our only specimen (Sheboygan, 04 Sep 1916, C. Goessl s.n., WIS) was not mentioned by Shinners (1941), and would seem to represent a garden-grown plant of this eastern species.

Atriplex argentea Nutt., silver-scale, silver-scale saltbush
There is only one C. Goessl collection (Sheboygan, Oct 1933, s.n., WIS) of this western saltbush, possibly a casual adventive from the Great Plains.

Atriplex littoralis L., grass-leaved orache, seashore orache
This halophyte was attributed to Wisconsin by Fernald (1950), as A. patula var. littoralis, but as now understood A. littoralis sensu stricto) is strictly a coastal species, its name having often been misapplied to narrow-leaved inland plants of A. patula.

Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw., smooth yellow false foxglove
A collection purporting to be from Williams Bay (21 Aug 1897, L. Umbach s.n., RM), and mapped by Pennell (1935), was subsequently reported from Wisconsin in floristic manuals. This record is in all likelihood based on a label mix-up according to F. S. Crosswhite (in litt., 1963), the specimen probably having been collected at Miller, Indiana, or Saugatuck, Michigan, places at which Umbach did an enormous amount of collecting. From these areas WIS has collections of A. flava made by Umbach, whose herbarium is now incorporated into WIS.

Borago officinalis L., common borage
This occasionally grown ornamental was collected once by S.C. Wadmond (03 Jul 1934, 17234, WIS), who says, "Appearing spontaneously in Earl Shepard's garden [, Delavan] and increasing from year to year."

Botrychium pseudopinnatum W.H.Wagner, false daisy-leaved moonwort, false northwestern moonwort
One specimen from Wisconsin Point, Douglas County (12 Jul 1997, G.B. Walton 2527, DUL) resembles this recently described, diminutive fern, but neither W. Wagner Jr. nor D. Farrar is sure of its identity, and there is no other known occurrence in Wisconsin.

Briza maxima L., big quaking grass
Our only specimen (Jul 1945, J.R. Detwiler 02, WIS) of this decorative grass lacks sufficient information to decide its status as to whether it was cultivated or escaped.

Bromus brizaeformis Fisch. & C.A.Mey., rattlesnake brome
Pavlick (1995) mapped this weedy introduction from southwest Asia for the southern half of Wisconsin, but it is excluded for lack of a voucher specimen.

Bromus marginatus Nees ex Steud. var. breviaristatus (Buckley) Beetle, mountain brome
The specimens reported from Milwaukee (as B. breviaristatus) in Brues and Brues (1914) were reidentified and cited by Fassett (1951) as B. purgans (= B. pubescens).

Bromus sterilis L., barren brome, poverty brome
Pavlick (1995) mapped this weedy annual of southern Europe for the SE corner of Wisconsin, but it is excluded for lack of a voucher specimen.

Calystegia hederacea Wallich, Japanese bindweed, Japanese false bindweed
The only specimen of this double-flowered horticultural form (cv. Flore Pleno ) of an east Asian morning-glory was made by C. Goessl (Jun 1903, s.n., WIS) from a "waste place" in Sheboygan. Although it has become naturalized in eastern North America, it is not yet established in Wisconsin.

Carex hirsutella Mack., fuzzy wuzzy sedge
There is only one C. Goessl specimen (s.d., s.n., WIS), purporting to be from "Sheboygan or Manitowoc County," of this widespread eastern and southern species. Its presence in southern Michigan and throughout Illinois suggests that it may have been introduced by way of the busy Great Lakes shipping traffic to a harbor town.

Carex incomperta E.P.Bicknell
This species is to be found in southern Wisconsin sedge meadows according to Curtis (1959), but with its range to the south and east of Wisconsin, and a lack of any verifying specimens, this report is evidently based on misidentifications.

Carex nigromarginata Schwein., black-edge sedge
Reported by Curtis (1959) as "modal" in his "northern mesic forest," this listing must evidently refer to C. peckii or some other species.

Carex seorsa Howe, weak stellate sedge
A specimen of this sedge mounted on the same sheet (1975, S. Rowlatt s.n., MOR) with another of Carex sterilis from Walworth County possibly represents an inadvertent addition of extraneous material from northern Indiana, where the collector was also active, and the species is not uncommon.

Carex shortiana Dewey, Short's sedge
One specimen of this southeastern sedge in WIS (s.d., J. Clark s.n.), purporting to be from "S. Wisconsin," is a mislabeled collection from the Herbarium of Ripon College.

Carex squarrosa L., squarrose sedge
Although Gleason (1952) cited Wisconsin in his distribution statement, we have seen no specimens of this eastern sedge and believe the report must have been based on some misidentification.

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, pig-nut hickory
There are no voucher specimens in WIS, and reports in literature (see discussion under C. ovalis) suggest that this species is known only from cultivation in Wisconsin. It does, however, nearly reach the Wisconsin border in Lake and Ogle counties, Illinois (Swink & Wilhelm, 1994).

Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg., false shagbark, red hickory, sweet pig-nut hickory
These two hickories (C. glabra and C. ovalis) need to be discussed together (as they were by Voss, 1985) by quoting from a paragraph from Fassett (1932a: 232): "We have, apparently, but two native hickories common in the state. These are C. ovata and C. cordiformis. They are listed by S. C. Wadmond [1909] as being common in Racine and Kenosha Counties. Russel [1907] lists both from Milwaukee County, adding C. glabra as reported from Wauwatosa, where probably planted. Cheney and True [1893] list C. alba [i.e, C. ovata] and C. amara [i.e.,C. cordiformis] from the Madison area. In his notes, Cheney lists besides these 'Hicoria glabra odorata [i.e., C. ovalis sensu stricto],' of which he says a single tree grows near the edge of Lake Monona in the suburb of Elmside, Madison. This, according to Professor R. H. Denniston, was a large tree, perhaps old enough to antedate the settling of the city, and probably of natural occurrence…Professor Denniston and the writer were unable to find the tree on October 9, 1931; it has apparently been cut down."
The occurrence of C. ovalis presents a conundrum. The large tree mentioned above is represented by a specimen (identified as C. ovalis by D. E. Stone): "Only one tree. Near an ice house on N.E. shore of Lake Monona (at Elmside), Madison" (03 Jun 1909, J.R. Heddle1349, WIS). Thus, although that specimen may have been native, the taxon is not known to grow wild in Wisconsin now, and without further information to determine if the one specimen from Madison was native or planted, this species must be excluded for the time being from our flora.

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill., clammy chickweed, sticky chickweed
Reported in the 3rd edition of the Spring Flora (Fassett, 1957) as C. viscosum [auct. mult., non] L., the five specimens in WIS originally so identified all being C. fontanum subsp. vulgare. Current manuals list C. viscosumas a synonym under C. glomeratum (Flora Europaea Vol. 1) or vice versa (Gleason & Cronquist, 1991); in either case, the plant is a more southerly Eurasian weed not yet known from Wisconsin (Schlising & Iltis, 1962).

Chelone obliqua L., purple turtlehead, red turtlehead
Doubtfully spontaneous, this occasionally grown ornamental is represented by only one student collection (23 Sep 1967, D.P. Mueller 620, WIS), which was associated with other garden plants.

Chenopodium bonus-henricus L., good-King-Henry
There is only one C. Goessl (Sheboygan, Aug 1928, s.n., WIS) collection of this Eurasian weed.

Chrysanthemum coronarium L., crown daisy
Neither of our specimens (Madison, s.d., T.J. Hale s.n., WIS; Janesville, 28 Aug 1889, G. Skavlem s.n., WIS) of this commonly grown garden plant suggests that it grew wild (Mickelson & Iltis, 1966).

Cicer arietinum L., chickpea, garbanzo
There is only one C. Goessl (10 Jul 1907, s.n., WIS) collection of this crop plant, and although accepted by Fassett (1939), it has not become part of our flora.

Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt., black cohosh, black snakeroot, false bugbane
Though attributed to Wisconsin by USDA PLANTS, its range is south and east of the state, and there are no confirming specimens from the wild. It is persisting from plantings in the UW - Madison Arboretum (Dane County) and in many local

Cirsium canescens Nutt., Platte thistle, prairie thistle
This Great Plains thistle is represented by one C. Goessl collection (s.d., s.n., WIS) from a "R. R. yard, Sheboygan." Apparently a one-time occurrence in Wisconsin, the species has not become established (Johnson & Iltis, 1964).

Cirsium ochrocentrum A.Gray, yellow-spine thistle
Two old specimens of this southern Great Plains thistle, labeled by C. Goessl as being from Prairie du Chien (04 Aug 1921, s.n., WIS) and Marshfield (1915, s.n., MIL) were rejected, again on the grounds of plant geography and general collector unreliability (Johnson & Iltis, 1964). However, considering the extensive railroad traffic of the times, C. ochrocentrum may well have been adventive though not persisting.

Consolida pubescens (DC.) Soó, knight's-spur
Although listed and mapped for Wisconsin in Flora of North America Vol. 3, no specimen has been seen from our state.

Consolida regalis S.F.Gray, royal knight's-spur
Listed and mapped for Wisconsin in Flora of North America Vol. 3, probably on the authority of Fassett (1947), who cited it (as Delphinium consolida L.) for Milwaukee and Racine. The Milwaukee specimen (Aug 1887, F.Runge13, MIL) has been determined as C. ajacis, and the latter (s.d., T.J. Hale s.n., WIS) as C. ajacis, mixed with some other species of Consolida, possibly C. regalis.

Coreopsis tripteris L., tall coreopsis, tall tickseed
Even though this handsome tickseed was reported for Wisconsin by various authors, including Fernald (1950), Gleason and Cronquist (1991), Rickett (1966), and USDA PLANTS, and by a recent unverified sight report from Grant County, so far no specimen from Wisconsin has been located. Because C. tripteris occurs immediately to the south of Wisconsin and is now occasionally planted in gardens and prairie restorations, it may soon be expected to turn up in our flora.

Coriandrum sativum L., Chinese parsley, coriander
The one C. Goessl (Jul 1904, s.n., WIS) collection of this Mediterranean herb, from a "waste heap" in Sheboygan, possibly escaped from cultivation.

Cornus mas L., cornelian cherry
This European cultivated shrub or small tree has been very slightly spreading from local plantings in some Milwaukee County parks, but as yet it is not truly established outside of cultivation.

Crataegus pennsylvanica Ashe, Pennsylvania hawthorn
Because its range is Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, according to Fernald (1950), we exclude C. pennsylvanica pending reexamination of the several collections in MIL identified as this species.

Crataegus phaenopyrum (L.f.) Medik., Washington's hawthorn, Washington's-thorn
There are several collections from parks, parkways, and the grounds of public buildings, but none of these appear to represent trees established spontaneously.

Croton capitatus Michx., hog-wort, woolly croton
This southern croton appeared once "among some sweet potato vines shipped in from Tennessee" (ca. 01 Sep 1955, Mrs. J.R. Kelton s.n., WIS), implying that this species was transplanted, not adventive, and not a part of our flora (Richardson et al.,

Cuscuta megalocarpa Rydb., big-fruit dodder
Fogelberg (1937) reported this species (as C. carta) for Wisconsin on the basis of a specimen (11 Jul 1896, L.S. Cheney 4738, WIS), which, however, has since been reidentified as our common C. gronovii (det. T. Yuncker [1932]; verif. T. Beliz [1986-87]).

Cuscuta rostrata Shuttlew. ex Engelm. & A.Gray, beaked dodder
Based on the Botany 2002 meetings, all our specimens previously determined as C. rostrata have been examined and determined to be Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. var. gronovii.

Cymbalaria muralis Gaertn., G.Mey. & Scherb., coliseum-ivy, Kenilworth-ivy
Salamun (1951: 117) says of this petite ornamental that "it has probably escaped," but the only Wisconsin specimen in MIL and all those in WIS bear label information indicating that they were cultivated in a garden, where they do survive our winters.

Cynoglossum virginianum L., northern wild comfrey
Reported as present in "southern dry forest" (Curtis, 1959), but this southeastern species does not occur in Wisconsin. Its sister taxon, C. boreale [C. virginianum var. boreale], grows in Wisconsin only in coniferous or mixed woods ("northern hardwoods") in the far north, suggesting that Curtis' report, unsupported by a voucher specimen, is based on some misunderstanding.

Dalea enneandra Nutt., nine-anther prairie-clover, sail-pod dalea
A species of the western Great Plains, first described in Fraser's Nursery (London, 1813) "catalogue" or seed list of T. Nuttall's discoveries "collected in upper Louisiana and principally on the River Missourie, North America," and redescribed, again by Nuttall, in his 1818 Flora (under D. laxiflora, a synonym) as growing on "…the high hills and naked grassy plains of the Missouri, also onthebanksoftheMississippinearthePrairieduChien" [emphasis added]. The latter location may be
interpreted as a gratuitous addition to be blamed on Nuttall's faulty memory, for this unmistakable species grows nowhere near Wisconsin (Fassett's [1939] indecisiveness and his attempt to bring the unglaciated Driftless Area into the argument notwithstanding), and on an hiatus of seven years of explorations in the West between his short visit to Prairie du Chien in 1811 and the publication of his book in 1818.

Desmazeria rigida (L.) Tutin., fern grass
This European grass is represented by an I. A. Lapham (s.d., s.n., WIS) collection bearing the collector's pre-printed "Milwaukee" label. Mounted on the same sheet with a collection of Vulpia octoflora, it is of doubtful origin.

Diarrhena americana P.Beauv., American beak grain, beak grass
One specimen (s.d., J. Clark s.n., WIS [ex Herbarium Ripon College]) of this Appalachian and Ozarkian species (or variety) has been seen, part of a mixed collection of grasses that is no doubt erroneously labeled as from Wisconsin. The one specimen cited by Fassett (1951) has since been reidentified as D. obovata (Iltis et al.,1960), The Wisconsin DNR lists this species as Endangered under the name D. americana [sensu stricto].

Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem., common bleeding-heart
We have only one collection (23 May 1890, G. Skavlem s.n., WIS) of this familiar Chinese garden ornamental, which was annotated "Escaped from garden" years after having been collected.

Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.?, Indian crabgrass
One specimen of this tropical grass (21 May 1941, J.T. Curtis s.n., identified by J. Swallen), from Fox Point, Lake Mendota, Madison, probably represents an escape from Schubert's orchid greenhouses nearby, according to L. H. Shinners' annotation.

Dodecatheon frenchii (Vasey) Rydb., French's shooting-star
This endemic of southern Illinois and western Kentucky was reported by Fassett (1927, 1944b) and others for Wisconsin on the basis of two collections in WIS (s.d., I.A. Lapham s.n.; 27 Jun 1895, W.R. Schumans.n.), both of which proved to be D. meadia (see discussion in Iltis & Shaughnessy 1960).

Dodecatheon pulchellum (Raf.) Merr. subsp. pulchellum, jewelled shooting-star, western shooting-star
Formerly listed by the Wisconsin DNR (as D. radicatum Greene) as a species of Special Concern, this name applies in Wisconsin to the taxon we recognize as D. amethystinum, a rare microendemic accepted tentatively by Iltis and Shaughnessy (1960). Currently there is no general agreement whether the highly local eastern D.amethystinum deserves status as a subspecies or even as a full species or whether like D. radicatum, it, too, should be merged with D. pulchellum.

Dracocephalum moldavica L., Moldavian dragonhead
There are three collections, two by T. J. Hale (Racine, 1859, s.n.; St. Croix County, 1861, s.n., both WIS) and one by C. Goessl (labeled "Hort."), of this Eurasian garden herb, possibly representing spontaneous as well as cultivated plants.

Elytrigia spicata (Pursh) D.R.Dewey, bluebunch wheat grass
We have one collection from Taylor County (08 Sep 1993, D.Fields 744, WIS), but according to J. Campbell’s annotations, the identification is questionable. This specimen requires further study before this species can be included in our flora.

Eryngium leavenworthii Torr. & A.Gray, Leavenworth's eryngo
Collected at Janesville (Skavlem in 1915, 1916, MIL), and here far out of range, this southwestern eryngo is sometimes planted as an ornamental.

Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., climbing euonymus, winter-creeper
Though commonly grown as a ground or wall cover and reportedly escaped in Dane County, we have not seen any specimens from Wisconsin that represent plants growing spontaneously.

Euphorbia myrsinites L., myrtle spurge
We have one collection from a garden (02 Jun 1971, N.A. Harriman s.n., OSH), said to be an adventive that never reappeared in subsequent years (N. A. Harriman, pers. comm.; Richardson et al., 1988).

Fragaria vesca L. subsp. vesca, thin-leaved wild strawberry, woodland strawberry
Said to grow in Wisconsin by Mason and Iltis (1958), who, however, did not map infraspecific taxa separately. All Wisconsin specimens appear on reexamination to be F. vesca subsp. americana.

Frasera caroliniensis Walter, American columbo
Reported (as Swertia caroliniensis) as occurring in Wisconsin by Fernald (1950), but excluded by Mason and Iltis (1966), this Ozarkian species ranges northward to southern Michigan, but not as far as Wisconsin, from where we have seen no specimens.

Galium sylvaticum L., baby's-breath, Scotch-mist
Only two Wisconsin collections have been seen, both made at Sheboygan by C. Goessl (19 Aug 1924, s.n.; Aug 1926, s.n., both WIS). This European introduction is not accepted as growing wild in the state (Urban & Iltis, 1958).

Galium tricornutum Dandy, rough-fruit corn bedstraw
There is only one C. Goessl (Jul 1931, s.n., WIS) collection, from a "waste place" in Sheboygan, of this Eurasian agricultural weed, which never became naturalized.

Gentiana saponaria L., harvest-bells, soapwort gentian
Reports in the literature (e.g., Curtis, 1959; Wadmond, 1933) of this southeastern species are probably all based on incorrect determinations of G. andrewsii (Mason & Iltis, 1966; see also Pringle, 1967).

Gnaphalium purpureum L., purple cudweed
There is only one undated Wisconsin specimen, from Sheboygan (C. Goessl s.n., WIS), of this European weed, undoubtedly representing a garden weed or rare adventive.

Gymnocarpium Xheterosporum W.H.Wagner, black-spore oak fern
This rare interspecific hybrid (=G. appalachianum K.M.Pryer & Haufler X G. robertianum (Hoffm.) Newman) was accepted in Flora of North America Vol. 2, but cited as known only from Pennsylvania. K. M. Pryer has since reidentified the three Wisconsin collections cited and mapped by Wagner (1966) as G. intermedium.

Hackelia floribunda (Lehm.) I.M.Johnst., many-flowered stickseed
This western species was reported by Cochrane (1975) from Kewaunee County, but the two collections (11 Jun 1892, J. Schuette 38622; 26 Jul 1892, J. Schuette 38623, both WIS) have since been redetermined to be H. deflexa var. americana
(see Gentry, 1978).

Helianthus X multiflorus L. (pro sp.), many-flowered sunflower
There is only one G. Skavlem (20 Aug 1889, s.n., WIS) collection of this interspecific horticultural hybrid (=H. annuus L. X H. decapetalus L.), which has probably never been collected in the wild.

Heterotheca camporum (Greene) Shinners, lemon-yellow false golden aster, prairie golden aster
The report of Chrysopsis camporum by Fernald (1950) may have been based on confusion with the very similar H. villosa, of which it is sometimes considered a variety. Although spreading in historic times, the range of this sand prairie taxon of the
southern Midwest has not reached Wisconsin.

Hieracium albiflorum Hook.?, white hawkweed
A sterile specimen from Douglas County (C. Goessl 7656, MIL) very closely resembles this species (fide Johnson & Iltis, 1964).

Hieracium gronovii L., beaked hawkweed, hairy hawkweed, queen-devil
A single specimen (Umbachs.n., F), purporting to be from Devils Lake, Sauk County, is presumably erroneously labeled (Johnson & Iltis, 1964).

Huperzia occidentalis (Clute) Beitel, western club-moss, western fir-moss
Tryon et al. (1940, 1953) misidentified some of our typical H. lucidula collections from the Driftless Area and northern Wisconsin as Lycopodium lucidulum var. occidentale, a strictly Pacific Northwestern sister species to the widespread eastern North American H. lucidula (see Flora of North America Vol. 3).

Hyoscyamus niger L., black henbane
Only one C. Goessl (09 Jul 1914, s.n., WIS) collection, from a "coal yard, Sheboygan," of this very poisonous Eurasian herb, which was probably grown for medicinal purposes, but is now absent from our flora, wild or cultivated.

Inula salicina L., willow-leaved yellow-head
Our one C. Goessl specimen (s.d., s.n., WIS) of this Eurasian garden plant, said to have come from "Betw. Plymouth & Elkhart Lake," could have been either cultivated or escaped.

Justicia americana (L.) Vahl, American water-willow
Attributed to Wisconsin by various authors, including Fernald (1950), Gleason & Cronquist (1991), and Rickett (1966), but no voucher has yet been located of this widespread perennial herb of mud banks and shallow waters, which almost reaches
Wisconsin in northern Illinois.

Larix decidua Mill., European larch
Reported by Musselman et al. (1971) from Bradford Twp., Rock County, but the specimens (in WIS) proved to be L. laricina.

Lathyrus sativus L., chickling pea, white pea-vine
There is only one collection from Wisconsin (15 Jul 1903, C. Goessl s.n., WIS), from a "grain field, Sheboygan." Like Agrostemma githago and other Eurasian weeds that once grew in Wisconsin's abundant fields of rye and oats, these plants vanished from our flora with changing agricultural practices.

Lepidium ramosissimum A.Nelson var. bourgeauanum (Thell.) Rollins, Bourgeau's pepper-weed, peppergrass
The one Wisconsin specimen of this western Canadian species ("Sheboygan, common, Sept. 1918," C. Goessl s.n., WIS), mounted on the same sheet with our common L. densiflorum, must be considered a doubtful record (Patman & Iltis, 1962).

Levisticum officinale W.D.J.Koch, garden lovage
The one C. Goessl collection (Jun 1918, s.n., WIS), from "waste places in city, Sheboygan," is in all likelihood a rare escape of this once commonly grown garden herb, which is now hardly a part of our flora.

Leymus mollis (Trin.) Hara subsp. mollis, American dune grass
Published for Wisconsin by Swezey (1883, as Elymus mollis) without location or specimen citation, as well as by Fernald (1950, as E. arenarius var. villosus), this far-northern beach plant reaches Lake Superior on Michigan's Upper Peninsula, but it has not yet been found in Wisconsin (Iltis et al., 1960).

Lilium superbum L., American Turk's-cap lily
All Wisconsin reports of L. superbum (and of L. canadense) should be referred to L. michiganense, generally accepted now as a distinct taxon somewhat intermediate between the aforementioned taxa.

Linum lewisii Pursh, prairie flax
This homostylic western United States species was attributed to Wisconsin by Fernald (1950), though probably all such reports should be referred to the closely allied, heterostylic L. perenne of Europe (Gleason & Cronquist, 1991).

Luzula bulbosa (A.W.Wood) Rydb., bulbous wood rush
Reported from the Apostle Islands by McIntosh (1950), but the specimen proved to be Luzula multiflora.

Luzula parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv., small-flowered wood rush
Coffey Swab, in Flora of North America (2000), erroneously listed and mapped this circumpolar species for Wisconsin. It appears clear that the southern limit of its midcontinent range reaches only to northeastern Minnesota (Lake and Cook counties) and northern Michigan (Isle Royale). It does not occur throughout the Upper Peninsula as she indicated, nor does it extend into the northern part of our state.

Marrubium vulgare L., horehound
Our one specimen (1860, S.H. Watson s.n., WIS) of this Eurasian mint is from Madison and was probably cultivated in an herb garden.

Mentha X rotundifolia (L.) Huds., apple mint
Listed by Koeppen (1957), but the only Wisconsin specimen (MIL) of this hybrid mint (=M. longifolia (L.) Huds. X M. suaveolens Ehrh.) is from a garden in Sheboygan.

Mitella X intermedia Bruhin ex Small & Rydb. (pro sp.), intermediate miterwort
"Type collected near the shore of Lake Michigan, one mile northward from Centerville [Manitowoc County], Wisconsin, by T. A. Bruhin" (Small & Rydberg, 1905: 92), a specimen that presumably is deposited in NY but can no longer be found (J. Kallunki, in litt., 1999). This presumed interspecific hybrid between M. diphylla and M. nuda has not been recollected since, so far as we know, although Gleason (1952) says that intermediate plants are "rarely observed."

Nuphar pumila (Timm) DC., yellow water-lily
This species is strictly Eurasian in the narrow sense, whereas all the Wisconsin plants once identified as N. pumila or N. lutea subsp. pumila belong to the very similar N. microphylla of eastern North America.

Oenothera grandis (Britton) Smyth, large-flowered cut-leaf evening-primrose, showy evening-primrose
A member of the flora of the southern Great Plains, our only collection comes from "R. R. ballast, Plymouth [Sheboygan County]" (Aug 1903, C. Goessl s.n., WIS) and is mounted on the same sheet with specimens of O. laciniata, its close and widespread relative.

Onosmodium molle Michx., marble-seed, smooth onosmodium, western false gromwell
The Wisconsin DNR lists this marble-seed as a Special Concern species. However, Turner (1995) has recently transferred both of our infraspecific native taxa of O. molle (subsp. hispidissimum and subsp.occidentale) to varieties of O. bejariense.

Ophioglossum vulgatum L., southern adder's-tongue
This species has been reported many times for the state, including by the Wisconsin DNR (as a Special Concern taxon, O. vulgatum var. pseudopodum). However, our taxon is now recognized as a distinct species,O. pusillum (see Flora of North
America Vol. 3).

Opuntia polyacantha Haw., plains prickly-pear
Similar to O. macrorhiza, this western species has been reported by Gleason (1952) and Gleason and Cronquist (1991) as occurring east to Wisconsin and Missouri. There is no confirming specimen (Ugent, 1963) for Wisconsin.

Paspalum racemosum Lam., Peruvian paspalum
One specimen (31 Aug 1972, O. Thomson s.n., WIS) as "a weed from a package of mixed flower seed in a garden..."

Phacelia purshii Buckley, Miami-mist, scorpion-weed
Reported by Fernald (1950), but the range of the species is mostly south and east of our area, and no Wisconsin specimen has been seen.

Philadelphus coronarius L., European mock-orange, sweet mock-orange
Reported from various counties as "escaped" (Fassett, 1932b: 240 ) or "persisting (and) spreading?)" (Lange, 1998: 135), but it is unlikely that any of the herbarium specimens seen came from shrubs that grew outside of cultivation.

Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M.C.Johnst., American Christmas mistletoe, oak mistletoe
The one specimen of this southern species (s.d., Mrs. C. Tracy s.n., WIS [ex Herbarium Ripon College]) is clearly mislabeled as being from Wisconsin, for its closest stations are in southern Missouri.

Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb., Mascarene Island leaf-flower
A specimen (22 Sep 1983, M. Bremer 21, WIS) of this Old World annual species, "…introduced into Florida and…apparently not naturalized further north than the Carolinas" (G. L. Webster, in litt. 1986), appeared in a flower box in Madison. Evidently, this introduction will not survive our winters.

Pinus mugo Turra, mugo pine, Swiss mountain pine
Our one specimen (11 Jun 1972, M. & W. Rice 1282, WIS), from a railroad right-of-way in Green County, is no doubt an accidental introduction, what with dwarf ecotypes and cultivated varieties of this European alpine often grown in Wisconsin gardens. This species is not listed for neighboring floras and is not accepted here.

Plagiobothrys figuratus (Piper) I.M.Johnst. ex M.Peck, fragrant popcorn-flower, scorpion-grass
Reported (as Allocarya figurata) in Jones and Fuller (1955) as adventive in Wisconsin, but no specimen of this Pacific Northwestern taxon has been located.

Platanthera blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindl., white fringed orchid
A single collection of white-flowered Platanthera, mounted on three sheets (1862, S.H. Watson s.n., WIS), from "prairies, Rock County" and labeled Habenaria leucophaea, turn out to be P. blephariglottis, an eastern and southeastern species mostly of sphagnum bogs. Because they were misdentified, collected in an unlikely habitat, and are out of range (for maps see Case [1987] and Luer [1975]), these implausible records are not accepted by us.

Platanthera ciliaris (L.) Lindl., yellow fringed orchid
Cited for Wisconsin by Gleason and Cronquist (1991), Rickett (1966), and others, but unsubstantiated by specimens, and neither cited nor mapped for Wisconsin by Case (1987) or Luer (1975), this unmistakable orchid deserves to be excluded.

Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC., camphor pluchea, marsh fleabane
This widespread southern species of freshwater and brackish marshes reaches its northern range limit in central Illinois. Our only collection (Aug 1919, C. Goessl s.n., WIS) from a coal yard at Sheboygan was possibly a one-time waif introduced with ship ballast.

Poa interior Rydb., Inland bluegrass
Reported by Wetter, et al.  (2001), all WIS specimens so named have been reidentified since then as other Poa sp.

Polygonum bellardii All., narrow-leaved knotweed
Reported (as P. aviculare var. angustissimum Meisn.) by Mahony (1932), all WIS specimens so named have been reidentified since then by T. Mertens and/or D. Katz as P. arenastrum.

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf., annual rabbit's-foot grass
"Collected but once [probably by C. Goessl?]…in Sheboygan in 1903" (Fassett, 1951), this widespread European weed of "ballast and waste places" (Hitchcock & Chase, 1951) has not been collected since in Wisconsin.

Polystichum lonchitis (L.) Roth, northern holly fern
Listed and mapped for Wisconsin in Flora of North America Vol. 2, this circumboreal calciphile extends south to Michigan but not Wisconsin, where it apparently has never been collected.

Potamogeton perfoliatus L., clasping-leaf pondweed, perfoliate pondweed, red-head-grass
There is one specimen in WIS of this cosmopolitan pondweed that might be this species, but it is too poor for certain determination (!B. Hellquist). Another (10 Sep 1989, Levings s.n., ISC) cited by Judziewicz and Koch (1993) needs verification.

Potentilla canadensis L., dwarf cinquefoil, running five-fingers
This widespread eastern species has been reported in error by Rydberg (1908), and many of our collections were once so-named, owing to confusion with the very similar P. simplex, the latter a ubiquitous prairie and savanna species with elongate arching stolons which P. canadensis lacks (Mason & Iltis, 1958).

Prunus mahaleb L., Mahaleb cherry, perfumed cherry
A few collections, apparently from shrubs or trees growing as suckers from old orchard or ornamental trees, have been made of this Old World species, which, used as an understock for the grafting of cherry varieties, has not become part of our flora.

Prunus pumila L. var. depressa (Pursh) Bean, Great Lakes sand cherry, sand cherry
Though reported by Fernald (1950), Gleason and Cronquist (1991), and in a recent study (Catling et al., 1999) as occurring in Wisconsin, our collections of this variable species form a continuum which as yet has not lent itself to separation into varieties (Mason & Iltis, 1958). In any case, we have seen no specimens in either the field or in herbaria (MIL, MIN, WIS and Northland College were checked) that can be explicitly labeled P. depressa or P. pumila var. depressa.

Pulmonaria officinalis L., common lungwort
Reported by Cochrane (1975) as found along the Jump River, Rusk County, but the specimen (07 May 1972, J. Flanagan 01,
UWSP) is better referred to P. saccharata.

Ranunculus hispidus Michx. var. hispidus, Bristly buttercup, hispid buttercup, rough buttercup
Reported by Wetter, et al.  (2001), all WIS specimens so named have been reidentified since then as other varieties of R. hispidus.

Rhus toxicodendron L., poison-ivy, poison-oak
Like Rhus radicans, a "blanket name" formerly widely used for any poison-oak or poison-ivy in Wisconsin (e.g., Fassett, 1940) and elsewhere. All our poison-ivy specimens represent either the tree-climbing Toxicodendron radicans subsp. negundo of southern Wisconsin river valleys or the low, non-climbing T. rydbergii, widespread throughout the state.

Robinia viscosa Vent., clammy locust, rose-acacia
Collected once in the Town of Polk, Washington County, probably from a planted specimen (03 Jul 1886, E. Kremers s.n., WIS) (Fassett, 1939), it has not, unlike the similar R. hispida, become established in Wisconsin.

Rubus abactus L.H.Bailey
Reported from Rock County by Musselman et al. (1971) on the strength of A. M. Fuller’s annotation of a specimen from Evansville. M. P. Widrlechner, who saw the specimen in question and marked it “insufficient for determination,” says (pers. comm.) the collections labeled R. abactus by Fuller represent a mixture of species, none of which is the true eastern R. abactus.

Rubus gulosus L.H.Bailey, New Brunswick blackberry
Attributed to Wisconsin in the 4th edition of Spring Flora (Fassett, 1976), but this is an endemic of New Brunswick and Maine, not represented by any specimens from our state.

Rubus navus L.H.Bailey, Grand Lake blackberry
Another microspecies attributed to Wisconsin (Fassett, 1976), but with the same range as the above and not represented by any specimens from our state.

Rubus orarius Blanch., blackberry
One specimen (in MIL) so named is undoubtedly misidentified. According to Davis et al. (1969), this species known only from coastal Maine.

Rubus pensilvanicus Poir., Pennsylvania blackberry, yankee blackberry
Rubus pensilvanicus (sensu stricto), following Davis et al. (1969), grows from New England to Virginia and does not occur anywhere near Wisconsin.

Rubus recurvicaulis Blanch., arching dewberry, Blanchard's dewberry
This species does not occur in Wisconsin, for according to Davis et al. (1968), it is restricted to New England.

Ruta graveolens L., common rue
Of the two specimens in WIS of this subshrub, once much grown for its medicinal and aromatic qualities, one was apparently planted ("Krakow Cemetery," 08 Jul 1954, Sr. Augusta s.n.), and the other ("waste place, Sheboygan," Jul 1918, C. Goessl s.n.) may have escaped from cultivation.

Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh, common marsh-pink, rose-pink
Listed by Fernald (1950) as reaching Wisconsin, this report is evidently based on the single Wisconsin specimen known (ca. 1860, T. J. Hale, GH), which was excluded by Mason and Iltis (1966) as probably not native.

Salicornia europaea L., samphire, slender glasswort
Although reported from Wisconsin by Fernald (1950: 599) on "salt-licks and -marshes," no specimen has been seen from our state.

Saururus cernuus L., lizard's-tail
There are two specimens in WIS supposedly from Wisconsin: "Southern Wisconsin" (s.d., J. Clarks.n. [ex Herbarium Ripon College]), a designation that is useless as to location; and "Swamps, Quarryville" (13 Jul 1896, S.C. Wadmond s.n.). Fifty-six years later, in a letter to N. C. Fassett, Wadmond could not recall the "Quarryville" site, which, he said, might have been his nickname for a special place, nor had he listed the species in his flora of Racine and Kenosha counties (Wadmond, 1909). It is not unlikely that there may have been a mistake in attributing this species to Wisconsin. However, it is generally distributed in
the Chicago region, lacking only from the northern tier of Illinois counties next to Wisconsin (Swink & Wilhelm, 1994), where it is entirely possible (in marshes adjoining Lake Michigan) that this species once grew, and furthermore, where quarries (of Niagara dolomite) have existed for some time.

Scutellaria incana Biehler, downy skullcap, hoary skullcap
Wisconsin is cited in Gleason and Cronquist (1991), but not only is there no Wisconsin specimen (Koeppen, 1957), but Epling's (1942) monograph shows the species to occur no closer than central Illinois and northern Indiana.

Sedum pulchellum Michx., rock-moss, widow's-cross
The only collection (s.d., T.J. Hale s.n. WIS) is not an acceptable record, because the closest stations are in Kentucky, southern Illinois, Missouri, and Oklahoma.

Selaginella apoda (L.) Spring, meadow spike-moss
According to recent research (Flora of North America Vol. 2), S. apoda (sensu stricto) is mostly a southeastern and eastern species, whereas specimens from Wisconsin known by that name (e.g., Tryon et al., 1953) are to be referred to the allopatric, mostly Ozarkian S. eclipes.

Sherardia arvensis L., blue field madder
There is only one C. Goessl collection (sandy field, Wislon Township, Sheboygan Co., 16 Jul 1903, s.n.), and although widespread in the United States, this Eurasian weed has not yet become established here (Urban & Iltis, 1958).

Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., morning campion, red catchfly, red campion, red cockle
There are only three old specimens from Wisconsin (01 Aug 1910, C. Goessl s.n.; s.d., J.J. Davis s.n.; 21 Jun 1885, H.L. Smith s.n., all in WIS), of this formerly grown ornamental, and these were probably taken from gardens. It has not been collected here since.

Silene gallica L., common catchfly, French catchfly
There is only one C. Goessl (Sheboygan, Aug 1919, s.n., WIS) collection, probably taken from a garden.

Silphium asteriscus L., southern rosinweed, starry rosinweed
The only specimen of this southern forb purporting to be from Wisconsin ("S.W. Wisc.," s.d., J. Clark s.n., WIS [ex Herbarium Ripon College]) is no doubt mislabeled as to location.

Solanum triflorum Nutt., cut-leaved nightshade
There is only one C. Goessl collection (Jul 1918, s.n., WIS), from a waste place in a coal yard, Sheboygan, of this weedy western species, which never became part of our flora.

Solidago canadensis L. var. gilvocanescens Rydb., Great Plains Canadian goldenrod, short-hair goldenrod
Often reported for the state (Fernald, 1950; Salamun, 1964), but as now understood (Croat, 1972), this variety does not occur in our region. Such reports should be referred to var. hargeri.

Solidago X krotkovii B.Boivin, Krotkov's goldenrod
Of this rare hybrid (=S. ohioensis Riddell X S. ptarmicoides (Ness) B.Boivin), there is a collection from Beach, Illinois (now Beach Park, 21 Jul 1908, L. Umbach 2424, WIS), a station that is only 5 miles south of nearly identical low flat calcareous prairies and swales along Lake Michigan at the Chiwaukee Prairie in Wisconsin, where both parents are sympatric and hybrids are to be expected. (The cited collection, and hence the hybrid, was not mentioned in Swink and Wilhelm [1994]).

Solidago ohioensis Riddell X S. riddellii Frank ex Riddell
According to a letter from J.-P. Bernard to Salamun (1964), this hybrid was represented among certain goldenrods he had collected from a wet prairie in Kenosha County. We have not seen any specimens (his or anyone else's) so identified, though the two parental species sometimes occur together.

Spiraea X vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel, bridal-wreath, Van Houtt's spiraea
Reportedly escaping (Mason & Iltis, 1958), but all WIS records indicate they were based on cultivated plants.

Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong, ,northern starwort
Based on the Botany 2002 meetings,all our specimens previouly determined as this species have been examined and determined to be Stellaria boreallis Bigelow subsp. borealis.

Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt., celandine poppy, mock poppy, wood poppy
Reported from Wisconsin by several authors, including Fernald (1950) and Rickett (1966), but there are no substantiating specimens of this striking yellow-flowered poppy, despite its frequency in cultivation and ready self-seeding in wildflower

Stylosanthes biflora (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., pencil-flower, sidebark pencil-flower
There is only one C. Goessl (23 Jun 1903, s.n., WIS) collection from a waste place in Sheboygan of this common and widespread southern species, which never became part of our flora.

Talinum parviflorum Nutt., prairie fame-flower, sunbright
Mapped for Wisconsin in the Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association, 1977) and in Carter and Murdy (1985), this error was based on a depauperate specimen of T. rugospermum that had been mistaken for this species (R.
L. McGregor, in litt.).

Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl., New York fern
Several specimens under this name, cited in error as from Wisconsin (as Aspidium noveboracense) by Steil and Fuller (1928), were later correctly identified as other species, namely, Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum, Deparia acrostichoides, and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens, by Breakey and Walker (1931). The species is not cited in either Tryon et al. (1940, 1953) or Peck and Taylor (1980).

Tradescantia virginiana L., Virginia spiderwort, widow's-tears
Although reported from Buffalo County by Anderson and Woodson (1935), Anderson himself later (1954: 310) stated "The previous record from Wisconsin is in error." This report, still being repeated in standard manuals (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2000) and wildflower books (Wells et al., 1999), remains unsupported by specimens in herbaria in Wisconsin or anywhere else, so far as known. Therefore, the mostly southeastern T. virginiana is excluded from our flora.

Trifolium resupinatum L., Persian clover, reversed clover, strawberry clover
Though reported for Wisconsin by Fassett (1939) and Gillett and Cochrane (1973), all specimens are old, and having been collected from (newly seeded) lawns, were probably inadvertently planted as a component of the commercial seed mix rather than established as a legitimate weed.

Trillium erectum L., purple trillium, red trillium, stinking-Benjamin
Reported as occurring in Wisconsin by various authors, but no specimens (except under cultivation) have ever been seen by us. Nevertheless, there are collections (Swink & Wilhelm, 1994) from two Illinois counties (Lake and McHenry) that are adjacent to Wisconsin.

Trillium undulatum Willd., painted trillium
Reported by Fernald (1950), Rickett (1966), and Samejima and Samejima (1987) as occurring in Wisconsin, these reports were based on a specimen from "Schoeclert's Woods, Johnson Creek, Wis. [Jefferson County]" (12 Jun 1909, P.O. Schallert 1690, DUKE), which lacks any information as to status and cannot be accepted as a wild population of this often cultivated, eastern species, which here would be far out of range.

Urtica urens L., burning nettle, dwarf nettle, stinging nettle
There is only one C. Goessl specimen (28 Jul 1914, s.n., WIS), from "waste ground" in Sheboygan, of this Eurasian weed, which has not become established in Wisconsin.

Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa, common vetch, narrow-leaved vetch, spring vetch
Only one C. Goessl (07 Jul 1914, s.n., WIS) collection from Sheboygan, which no doubt came in with other agricultural seeds but never became naturalized.

Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench, lentil vetch, four-seeded vetch
Although reported for Wisconsin by Gleason and Cronquist (1991), Fassett (1939) did not list this Eurasian weed, and it is excluded for lack of a voucher specimen.

Vitis cinerea Engelm., gray-bark grape, pigeon grape
Although reported for southern Wisconsin in standard manuals (Gleason, 1952; Gleason & Cronquist, 1991), possibly on the authority of L. H. Bailey (see Pohl, 1940), this and any other reports should be transferred to V. aestivalis var. argentifolia, our northern summer grape.

Woodsia scopulina D.C.Eaton, mountain cliff fern, Rocky Mountain woodsia
Attributed to northern Wisconsin by Fernald (1950) and said to grow at one place in Douglas County by Tyron et al. (1940, 1953), but the specimen originally identified as this species has since been reidentified as W. X abbeae.

Xyris difformis Chapman var. difformis, bog yellow-eyed-grass
Although Kral, in Flora of North America (2000), records this mostly coastal plain taxon in Wisconsin, its geographical distribution as shown by him (1966, 2000) suggests that it does not extend into our state. Not being able to find a specimen anywhere, we are excluding it from our flora.

The USDA PLANTS Database web site of the Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture ( reports (as of January, 1999) a considerable number of additional taxa for Wisconsin which cannot, at least for now, be accepted due to lack of voucher specimens. Of course, specimens may exist in herbaria not examined by us, or they may be misidentified, or they may be missing, or the reported occurrence in Wisconsin may be based solely on an erroneous literature citation. Some of the taxa listed in Table 8, such as Narcissus poeticus L., Prunus avium (L.) L., and Ribes uva-crispa L. var. sativum DC., do indeed grow in Wisconsin, but as cultivated species only with no "wild" population as yet documented.

Table 8. Additional taxa attributed to Wisconsin but considered as Excluded Taxa in this Checklist. 

Acer saccharum Marshall var. schneckii Rehder
Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth
Agrimonia rostellata Wallr.
Allium schoenoprasum L. var. sibiricum (L.) Hartm.
Allium vineale L. subsp. vineale
Amaranthus palmeri S.Watson
Aristida longespica Poir. var. longespica
Aster  lanceolatus Willd. subsp. lanceolatus var. hirsuticaulis Semple & Chmiel.
Aster  lanceolatus Willd. subsp. lanceolatus var. latifolius Semple & Chmiel.
Aster  lateriflorus (L.) Britton var. angustifolius Wiegand
Aster  praealtus Poir. var. praealtus
Atriplex tatarica L.
Boltonia asteroides (L.) L'Hér. var. latisquama (A.Gray) Cronquist
Bromus arvensis L.
Cardamine pratensis L. var. pratensis
Carex amphibola Steud.
Carex conjuncta Boott
Carex lapponica O.Lang
Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench subsp. nictitans var. nictitans
Chamaesyce humistrata (Engelm.) Small
Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. var. berlandieri
Chenopodium vulvaria L.
Cicuta maculata L. var. angustifolia Hook.
Cicuta maculata L. var. bolanderi (S.Watson) G.A.Mulligan
Cornus X slavinii Rehder
Crataegus nitida (Engelm.) Sarg.
Cyperus echinatus (L.) A.W.Wood
Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. oligosanthes
Dichanthelium ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark var. addisonii (Nash) Gould & C.A.Clark
Dichanthelium ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark var. ovale
Dichanthelium sabulorum (Lam.) Gould & C.A.Clark
Dioscorea quaternata J.F.Gmel.
Draba glabella Pursh
Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Bluff, Nees & Schauer
Eriophorum angustifolium Honck. subsp. scabriusculum Hultén
Euphorbia spathulata Lam.
Gaillardia pulchella Foug. var. pulchella
Gentiana septemfida Pall.
Geranium carolinianum L. var. carolinianum
Glyceria laxa (Scribn.) Scribn.
Gymnocarpium X brittonianum (Sarvela) K.M.Pryer & Haufler
Helianthus X intermedius R.W.Long
Hepatica nobilis Schreb.
Hieracium X fernaldii Lepage
Juncus effusus L. var. conglomeratus (L.) Engelm.
Juncus nodatus Coville
Juncus scirpoides Lam.
Lactuca saligna L.
Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A.Mey.
Lechea minor L.
Lechea mucronata Raf.
Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. nieuwlandii Lunell
Listera X veltmanii Case
Lonicera villosa (Michx.) Schult. var. solonis (Eaton) Fernald
Ludwigia decurrens Walter
Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D.Don ex Hook.
Lysimachia punctata L.
Madia sativa Molina
Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. latifolium Bart.
Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl
Monarda fistulosa L. subsp. fistulosa var. menthifolia (Graham) Fernald
Myriophyllum hippuroides Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray
Narcissus poeticus L.
Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm.
Oligoneuron X lutescens (Lindl. ex DC.) G.L.Nesom
Philadelphus inodorus L.
Physalis pubescens L.
Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl. var. hyperborea
Polemonium caeruleum L.
Polygonum fowleri B.L.Rob.
Polygonum scandens var. dumetorum (L.) Gleason
Populus X  canadensis Moench (pro sp.)
Potentilla rivalis Nutt. var. millegrana (Engelm. ex Lehm.) S.Watson
Proserpinaca palustris L. var. palustris
Prunus avium (L.) L.
Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb.
Ranunculus ficaria L. var. bulbifera Marsden-Jones
Rhamnus lanceolata Pursh subsp. lanceolata
Ribes aureum Pursh
Ribes uva-crispa L. var. sativum DC.
Rorippa cantoniensis (Lour.) Ohwi
Rosa cinnamomea L.
Rosa X housei Erlanson (pro sp.)
Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Sm.
Rubus adjacens Fernald
Rubus fecundus L.H.Bailey
Rubus kennedyanus Fernald
Rubus odoratus L. var. odoratus
Rubus permixtus Blanch.
Rubus philadelphicus Blanch.
Rubus setosus Bigelow
Rumex sanguineus L.
Salix viminalis L.
Salvia X sylvestris L. (pro sp.)
Sambucus racemosa L. var. racemosa
Sarracenia purpurea L. subsp. gibbosa (Raf.) Wherry
Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel.
Sisyrinchium farwellii E.P.Bicknell
Solidago hispida Muhl. ex Willd. var. arnoglossa Fernald
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A.Gray
Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. var. amplexifolius
Streptopus lanceolatus (Aiton) Reveal
Taraxacum officinale Weber subsp.vulgare (Lam.) Schinz & R.Keller
Teucrium canadense L. var. canadense
Tripleurospermum perforata (Merat) M.Laínz
Vernonia arkansana DC.
Vicia villosa Roth subsp. varia (Host) Corb.
Viola X bernardii Greene (pro sp.)
Viola X bissellii House
Viola blanda Willd. var. blanda
Viola X conjugens Greene (pro sp.)
Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb. var. octoflora
Wolffiella gladiata (Hegelm.) Hegelm.

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