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KEY to the WISCONSIN ASTERACEAE

 

Tribe 6. ASTEREAE - aster tribe

 

(Source: written by R. R. Kowal, 1984 Summer;

references: Fernald, 1950; Gleason & Cronquist, 1963, 1991; Cronquist, 1980; FNA, 2006; edited by R. R. Kowal, 2006 July 31.)

 

(Garden escape: Callistephus chinensis - China aster.  Not in FNA, 2006.)

 

1.   Ray corollas yellow, conspicuous; disk corollas yellow.

 

2.    Pappus of 2‑8 caducous awns; involucre more or less glutinous .

.........  GRINDELIA - gumweed.

 

2.    Pappus of numerous capillary bristles or hairs; involucre not glutinous.

 

3.    Pappus double with long capillary bristles surrounded by short, somewhat chaffy bristles; heads wider than 5 mm and rays longer than 4 mm .

....  HETEROTHECA (CHRYSOPSIS) - golden aster.

 

3.    Pappus simple; heads small with disks no wider than 5 mm and with rays no longer than 4 mm.

 

4.  Inflorescence corymbiform; leaves glandular punctate, linear to narrowly oblong, only slightly reduced upwards on stem; ray florets more numerous than the disk florets         

........  EUTHAMIA - flat-topped goldenrod.

 

4.  Plants not with BOTH inflorescence corymbiform AND ray florets more numerous than the disk florets; leaves usually broader, not glandular punctate        

........  SOLIDAGO - goldenrod.

 

1.   Ray corollas white, pink, violet, bluish or purple; disk corollas various.

 

5.    Pappus absent or inconspicuous (2‑4 awns up to 2 mm long and several minute bristles); receptacle conic, low-conical or hemispherical.

 

6.  Plant 3‑15 dm tall, with numerous heads; pappus inconspicuous; receptacle low-conical or hemispherical .

.....  BOLTONIA.

 

6.  Plant 1.5 dm or less tall, with one head on a scape; pappus absent; receptacle conic

....  BELLIS.

 

5.    Pappus of long capillary bristles or hairs; receptacles flat.

 

7.    Rays minute, shorter than the corolla tube and barely longer than the pappus; heads small with involucres no more than 4 mm long, disks no more than 4 mm wide, and disk florets numbering no more than 21

....  CONYZA.

 

7.    Rays conspicuous, larger; heads larger.

 

8.    Phyllaries approximately in one series, neither chartaceous at base nor with herbaceous green tip; style appendages roundish or obtuse, no longer than 0.3 mm; rays very numerous and narrowly linear (mostly 1.3 mm or less wide); plants blooming chiefly in spring and early summer (when later, plants also with heads past fruiting)         

........  ERIGERON - fleabane.

 

8.    Phyllaries clearly imbricated or with a foliaceous outer series; style appendages longer and more acute; rays in one or two series and relatively broader; plants blooming in late summer and fall         

........  "ASTER" - aster.

 

 

"ASTER" - aster

DOELLINGERIA, EURYBIA, IONACTIS, SOLIDAGO (1 sp.) , SYMPHYOTRICHUM

 

(Source: Shinners, 1941; Fernald, 1950; Jones, 1989; Gleason & Cronquist, 1991; Voss, 1996; Semple et al., 1996 & 2002; nomenclature up-dated using Semple et al., 2002, and Wetter et al., 2001; FNA, 2006.)

 

[The species of Doelingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, and Sympyotrichum have been traditionally treated under the genus Aster. Binomials under Aster are only given when specific epithets differ.]

 

1.   MIDDLE AND LOWER CAULINE LEAVES DISTINCTLY PETIOLED: most of the petioles more than 1 cm long, wingless, OR winged but less than 3 as wide as the blades; blades (except the uppermost) more than 12 mm wide, abruptly narrowed to a truncate or cordate base .....

...  Key 1.

 

1.   MIDDLE AND LOWER CAULINE LEAVES NOT DISTINCTLY PETIOLED: sessile, OR subsessile on petioles less than 0.5 cm long, OR apparently on broad-winged petioles more than 3 as wide as the blades, OR with long narrow tapering petiole-like bases, but the blades not more than 12 mm wide.

 

2. Pappus double, the inner of long capillary bristles, the outer of short bristles, ca 1 mm long or less [Very obscure!]; middle and upper phyllaries with scarious margins extending to tip, central green line not or only slightly expanded towards tip; inflorescence corymbose (heads sometimes few or solitary in I. linariifolia )

...  Key 2.

 

2.    Pappus not double; phyllaries various, but in most species with the central green line conspicuously dilated at tip; inflorescence various, but in most species not corymbose (Symphyotrichum).


 

3. Rays much reduced or absent (heads "disciform"); pappus conspicuous at anthesis; plants annual, with taproots (s = 2x; x = 7) 

...  Symphyotrichum ciliatum (Aster Brachyactis) - alkali rayless aster.

 

3.    Rays present, heads conspicuously radiate; pappus inconspicuous at anthesis or at most barely overtopping disk corollas; plants perennial, forming clumps or with rhizomes.

 

4.   Phyllaries pubescent and/or glandular, with prominent green or colored tips, straw-colored or whitish near the base         

...  Key 3.

 

4.   Phyllaries glabrous (ciliate or glabrous on the margins); middle phyllaries with a central green or colored line extending to the base         

...  Key 4.

 

 Key 1

 

1.   Phyllaries narrowly to broadly ovate-lanceolate, outer ones 1.0‑2.5 mm wide, less than 22 times as long as wide; inflorescence corymbiform (Eurybia).

 

2.    Branches of the inflorescence bearing glands; rays lilac or violet blue (rarely white) when fresh, retaining their color or turning brown in drying; leaves ovate-lanceolate to ovate, the upper petioled ones with blades usually less than twice as long as wide, sometimes longer; stems rather sparingly leafy, with 3‑8 leaves below the inflorescence; upper leaves usually abruptly and conspicuously reduced, the blade of the lowest stem leaf 1.5‑7.0 times as long as the blade of the first leaf below the inflorescence; clones usually with abundant rosettes of basal leaves (s = 8x; x = 9) ...

.........  Eurybia macrophylla - big-leaved aster.

 

2.    Branches of the inflorescence without glands; rays white (rarely rosy or rosy-lilac) when fresh, drying white, brown or rosy lilac; leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, the upper petioled ones with blades twice or more as long as wide; stems evenly and rather densely leafy, with 6‑14 cauline leaves below the inflorescence; upper leaves little reduced, the blade of the lowest stem leaf one to two times as long as the blade of the first leaf below the inflorescence; clones without abundant rosettes of basal leaves (s = 2x; x = 9) ...

.........  Eurybia furcata - midwestern white heart-leaved aster.

 

1.   Phyllaries linear-deltoid to lanceolate, outer ones 0.2‑1.0 mm wide, greater than 22 times as long as wide; inflorescence elongate (paniculate or racemose)  (Symphyotrichum).

 

3.    Middle phyllaries with slender green tips a to b their length, not diamond-shaped, the central green line gradually expanded from below or slightly above the middle, the broad apical portion more than 4 times as long as wide; phyllaries rather loose, acute or acuminate, gradually tapered in the apical a or more.

 

4.    Heads loosely corymbose-paniculate, mostly on elongate peduncles of very uneven lengths and with 0‑2 bracts; heads larger, involucres 6‑8 mm long; rays (7‑) 8‑15 mm long, bluish (s = 6x; x = 8) .

..  Symphyotrichum ciliolatum - northern heart-leaved aster.

 

4.    Heads racemose-paniculate, mostly on short peduncles 1‑5 (‑10) mm long or grading in size from base to tip of main branches; heads smaller, involucres 5‑7 mm long; rays 5‑10 mm long, color various.

 

5.    Lower leaves with blades deeply cordate and prominently toothed (some teeth (1.5‑) 2‑5 mm long on forward margin); petioles, especially on mid-cauline leaves, wingless or with a wing 1 mm or less on each side; inflorescence open, paniculiform; rays usually pale blue, sometimes roseate or white (s = 2x, 4x; x = 8)         

........  Symphyotrichum cordifolium - common blue arrow-leaved aster.

 

5.    Lower leaves with blades at most subcordate and more shallowly toothed; petioles, especially on mid-cauline leaves, often with a wing 1‑3.5 (‑6) mm on each side; inflorescence racemiform with ascending branches.

 

6.  Stems glabrous or pubescent in lines; rays pale bluish, pinkish or white (s = 2x, 4x, 6x; x = 8)  

...  Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Aster sagittifolius) - arrow-leaved aster.

 

6.  Stems densely pubescent, at least in the upper part; rays usually bluish (s = 2x, 4x; x = 8)  

...  Symphyotrichum Drummondii - hairy arrow-leaved aster.

 

3.    Middle phyllaries with prominent more or less diamond-shaped green tips 1/5 ‑ a their length, the central green line rather abruptly expanded above the middle, the broad apical portion not more than 4 times as long as wide; phyllaries more or less closely appressed, acute, abruptly tapered in the apical 3.

 

7.     Leaves prominently toothed; involucres 3.5‑5.0 mm long; disks 3‑5 mm wide; rays 3‑6 mm long (s = 2x, 4x; x = 8) .

..  Symphyotrichum cordifolium - common blue heart-leaved aster.

 

7.    Leaves entire or at most with few irregular teeth; involucres 5‑8 mm long; disks 5‑8 mm wide; rays 6‑10 mm long.

 

8.    Mid-cauline leaves sessile and clasping, smooth, glabrous and more or less glaucous (s = 6x; x = 8)         

..  Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve - smooth blue aster.

 

8.    Mid-cauline leaves petioled or tapering to base, scabrous (at least above) , not glaucous.

 

 

9.  Upper cauline leaves petiolate with cordate blades; blades smooth to slightly scabrous but glabrous above, pubescent to glabrous beneath; phyllaries minutely pubescent on back, rays usually pale violet (s = 2x, 4x; x = 8)  

...  Symphyotrichum Shortii - midwestern blue heart-leaved aster.

 

9.  Upper cauline leaves sessile, only the lowermost petiolate and with cordate blades; blades scabrous-hispid on both surfaces; phyllaries glabrous on back (margin sometimes ciliolate); rays usually blue (s = 4x; x = 8)  

...  Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Aster azureus) - prairie heart-leaved aster.

 

Key 2

 

1.   Leaves rigid, linear, veinless except for the strong midrib; rays pink or violet; scarious margins and tips of phyllaries often purplish; pappus obscurely double [!], bristles slender to tip (Ionactis)  (s = 2x; x = 9)

 ....... Ionactis linariifolia - flax-leaved aster.

 

1.   Leaves herbaceous, veiny and broad; rays white; scarious margins and tips of phyllaries whitish; pappus distinctly double, the longer series thickened terminally (Doellingeria)

.......  Doellingeria umbellata - flat-topped white aster.

 

2.  Leaves glabrous beneath, OR pubescent on the midrib and main veins, OR sparingly pubescent over the surface, but then much more densely pubescent on the main veins; heads with 7‑14 rays and 16‑40 disk florets (s = 2x; x = 9) ...

..  var. umbellata - tall flat-topped white aster.

 

2.  Leaves densely and evenly pubescent over the lower surface; heads with 4‑7 rays and 8‑15 disk florets ........

..  var. pubens (Aster pubentior) - northwestern flat-topped white aster.

 

Key 3

 

1.   Leaves and phyllaries silvery-silky; rootstock cormoid, woody (s = 2x; x = 5) ..........

................  Symphyotrichum sericeum - silky aster.

 

1.   Leaves and phyllaries not silvery-silky; rootstock various.

 

2.    Phyllaries and peduncles with sessile or stalked glands, with or without coarse hairs in addition.

 

3.  Leaves with auriculate clasping bases more than half encircling the stem; involucres 8‑10 mm long; rays 40‑50 (‑100)  (s = 2x, 4x; x = 5) .

..  Symphyotrichum novae-angliae - New England aster.

 

3.  Leaves not with auriculate bases, slightly or not at all clasping; involucres 5‑8 mm long; rays 12‑35 (s = 2x, 4x; x = 5) .

..  Symphyotrichum oblongifolium - aromatic aster.

 

2.    Phyllaries and peduncles not glandular, with fine or coarse hairs.

 

4.    Cauline leaves tapering to both ends, 0.3‑5.0 cm wide, 5‑15 cm long; outer phyllaries at most loose, not spinulose-mucronate.

 

5.   Leaves narrowly oblanceolate or subrhombic, thin and flexible, less than 10 times as long as wide, pubescent beneath; inflorescence a loose panicle (s = 4x; x = 8)         

........  Symphyotrichum ontarionis [sic] - bottomland or Ontario aster.

 

5.   Leaves linear (at least above) , coriaceous and rigid, more than 10 times as long as wide, glabrous beneath; inflorescence corymbose (s = 2x; x = 9)         

........  Solidago (Aster) ptarmicoides (S. asteroides) - upland white goldenrod.

 

4.    Cauline leaves about the same width throughout, 0.1‑0.5 cm wide, 1‑7 cm long; outer phyllaries loose or squarrose, with minutely spinulose-mucronate tips.

 

6.    Heads larger, fewer, solitary or clustered; involucres 5‑8 mm long; outermost phyllaries more than b as long as the innermost; rays 20‑35, disk florets (14‑) 18‑30 (s = 4x, 6x; x = 5)         

........  Symphyotrichum falcatum var. commutatum - white prairie aster.

 

6.    Heads smaller, more numerous and often secund; involucres 3‑5 mm long; outermost phyllaries not more than b as long as the innermost; rays 8‑20, disk florets 4‑15 (‑20)         

........  Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides - white heath aster.

 

Key 4

 

1.   Leaves with auriculate clasping bases encircling the stem half way or more.

 

2.    Leaves glaucous; stems glabrous or nearly so; outermost phyllaries not more than half as long as the innermost; phyllaries firm, appressed when fresh, with diamond-shaped green tips shorter than the scarious basal portion (s = 6x; x = 8) ...

.........  Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve - smooth blue aster.

 

2.    Leaves not glaucous; stems pubescent; outermost phyllaries more than half as long as the innermost; phyllaries often flexible and leaf-like, at least somewhat spreading, with green tips longer than the scarious basal portion or the outer wholly green.

 

3.    Leaves contracting below the middle and then expanding into a strongly auriculate-clasping base, entire or subentire in the basal portion, sharply serrate in the terminal portion; pappus dingy yellow, ochre or brown (s = 4x; x = 8) .

..  Symphyotrichum prenanthoides - zigzag aster.

 

3.    Leaves tapering from near the middle to both ends or nearly the same width throughout, entire or serrate; pappus white, yellowish or gray.

 

4.    Rhizomes short and stout, occasionally with short stolons; middle and upper leaves not conspicuously crowded, with internodes 1‑2.5 (‑6) cm long, hispid-pubescent over the surface (very rarely glabrous); lower leaf surface minutely strigillose, the midrib hispidulous or densely hirsute to villous (s = 2x, 4x; x = 8)         

........  Symphyotrichum puniceum - bristly or swamp aster.

 

4.    Rhizomes elongate; middle and upper leaves conspicuously crowded, with internodes 0.5‑1.6 cm long, glabrous or hispid-pubescent in lines; lower leaf surface glabrous or sparsely scabrous along the midrib         

........  Symphyotrichum firmum - shining aster.

 1.   Leaves not with auriculate bases, slightly or not at all clasping.

 

5.    Outermost phyllaries and bracts at base of heads with their upper thirds narrowly linear, nearly as thick as wide, and tapering into a cartilaginous spine (subulate); outermost phyllaries usually more than a as long as the innermost

........  Symphyotrichum pilosum - awl aster.

 

6. Stem and often also the leaves sparsely to, more often, densely spreading hirsute over the surface (s = 4x, 5x, 6x; x = 8) .

..  var. pilosum.

 

6. Stem and leaves nearly or quite glabrous, at most stem pubescent only in lines (s = 6x; x = 8) .

..  var. Pringlei.

 

5.   Outermost phyllaries and bracts at base of heads with their upper thirds broader, flat, either blunt or only acute; relative lengths of outermost and innermost phyllaries various.

 

7.    Middle phyllaries 0.8‑1.2 mm wide, less than 4 times as long as wide; disk corollas white; inflorescence corymbose (s = 2x; x = 9) .

..  Solidago (Aster) ptarmicoides (S. asteroides) - upland white goldenrod.

 

7.    Middle phyllaries 0.2‑1.0 mm wide, more than 4 times as long as wide; disk corollas yellow or anthocynanic; inflorescence paniculate.

 

8.    Lobes of the disk corollas 45‑75% the length of the cup; cauline leaves pubescent beneath, at least on the midrib; rays white.


 

9.  Lower leaf surface uniformly short-pubescent; heads not secund; rhizomes distinctly long-creeping, stoloniform, the plants forming colonial stands, usually in moist ground (s = 4x; x = 8)  

....  Symphyotrichum ontarionis [sic] - bottomland or Ontario aster.

 

9.  Lower leaf surface usually glabrous, but villous to hirtellous along the midrib; heads secund; rhizomes short, not long-creeping, the plants forming scattered individual clumps, usually in drier sites (s = 2x, 4x, 6x; x = 8)  

....  Symphyotrichum lateriflorum - starved, calico, white woodland or side-flowering aster.

 

8.    Lobes of the disk corollas 15‑45% the length of the cup; cauline leaves glabrous beneath; rays white, pink, bluish or purple         

........  Key 5.

 

Key 5

 

1.   Leaves subcoriaceous or firm, with a distinct reticulate pattern formed by dark veinlets surrounding paler, isodiametric areolae; rays lavender to purple (s = 4x, 8x; x = 8)

................  Symphyotrichum praealtum - willow-leaved aster.

 

1.   Leaves firm to membranaceous, without a distinct reticulum, areolae, if visible, oblong; rays variously colored. [A very difficult complex with much polyploidy and some taxa poorly differentiated and/or hybridizing.]

 

2.    Phyllaries subequal, the outermost more than b as long as the innermost; involucres tending to be larger (5‑8.5 mm long) , often subtended by bracts longer than the involucres (rare).

 

3. Middle leaves clasping the stem, (10‑) 15‑20 cm long; inflorescence open and few-headed, with branches sharply bent at nodes; rays blue-violet, rarely pale blue to white (s = 8x,10x; x = 8)

..  Symphyotrichum Robynsianum (Aster longifolius) - long-leaved blue aster.

 

3. Middle leaves sessile to very weakly clasping, less than 15 cm long; inflorescence many-headed and crowded, with branches not bent at nodes and with heads generally subtended by 1 or 2 long, leafy bracts; rays pale blue-violet, pink to white (s = 8x; x = 8) .

..  Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hesperium (S. hesperium) - western lined aster.

 

2.    Phyllaries unequal, the outermost less than b as long as the innermost; involucres tending to be smaller (3‑7 mm long) , with subtending bracts shorter than the involucres.

 

4.    Heads smaller, mostly 0.6‑1.5 cm in diameter (including rays); involucres 3‑5 (‑5.5) mm long.

 

5.    Cauline leaves mostly more than 3 mm wide, 8‑15 cm long, lateral veins evident, margins not inrolled (s = 6x, 8x; x = 8)         

........  Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. interior - inland panicled aster.

 

5.    Cauline leaves 1‑3 (‑5) mm wide, 2‑10 cm long, only midrib strongly expressed, margins often inrolled.

 

6.  Median phyllaries (3rd or 4th series inward) ca twice as wide as those of the outer series, typically obtuse, the green areoles rhombic-obovate to broadly oblanceolate; leaves of branches of main stem relatively uniform in size; peduncles usually at least 1 cm long (often much longer) , with numerous linear-oblong bracts, 1‑4 mm long; subsessile heads relatively few (s = 4x; x = 8)  

..  Symphyotrichum dumosum complex ("var. strictior") - long-stalked aster.

 

6.  Median phyllaries slender, less than twice as wide as those of the outer series, acute or attenuate, the green areoles linear to narrowly oblanceolate; leaves of branches of main stem notably unequal in size; peduncles variable in length, with few bracts; subsessile heads often numerous  

...  Symphyotrichum racemosum (S. fragilis) - brittle aster.

 

4.    Heads larger, mostly 1.5‑2.5 cm in diameter (including rays); involucres (4‑) 4.5‑7 mm long.

 

7.    Plants gracile, rootstock slender, thread-like, 0.5‑2.0 mm thick; stems normally solitary; inflorescence a more or less dichotomously branched, round- or flat-topped panicle; achenes purple or gray with purple streaks; larger cauline leaves mostly less that 1 cm wide, 12‑15 (or more) times longer than wide, shallowly and remotely serrate to subentire; marshes, bogs, fens, wet shorelines (s = 2x, 4x, 6x, 8x; x = 8)         

........  Symphyotrichum boreale - rush or northern bog aster.

 

7.    Plants stout, rhizomes 2‑6 mm thick; stems usually numerous from an extensive system of creeping rootstocks; inflorescence a diffusely branched or elongate panicle; achenes gray; leaves narrowly linear to broader; various moist-soil habitats         

........  Symphyotrichum lanceolatum - panicled or eastern lined aster.

 

8.  Stems stout, evenly, moderately to densely short-wooly  

.....  var. hirsuticaule.

 

8.  Stems stout to slender, glabrous or at most hairy in lines at bases.

 

9.  Leaves broadly oblanceolate, not much reduced in inflorescences; involucres usually 4-5.5 mm long; rays white       

......  var. latifolium.

 

 

9.   Leaves linear to oblanceolate, reduced in inflorescences; involucres usually 3.5-5 (‑6) mm long; rays white to purplish       

......  var. lanceolatum

("var. simplex" no longer recognized).

 

 

CONYZA

 

(s = 2x; x = 9)

 

1.   Plant usually unbranched below the inflorescence, with a well-defined central axis; stem spreading-hirsute; often taller than 3 dm; very common

...........  C. canadensis - horse-weed.

 

1.   Plant diffusely branched from near the base, without a central axis; stem cinereous-strigose; mostly 1‑3 dm tall; infrequent ...............

...........  C. ramosissima - dwarf fleabane.

 

 

BOLTONIA

 

(s = 4x; x = 9)

 

......  B. asteroides var. recognita - false aster.

 

 

BELLIS

 

(s = 2x; x = 9)

 

......  B. perennis - English daisy.

 

 

ERIGERON - fleabane

 

(References: as for Asteraceae plus Morley, 1969.)

 

           (x = 9)

 

1.   Disk corollas 3.5 mm long or more; rays 1 mm wide or more; inflorescence of 1‑9 heads; perennials with either a ligneous caudex or flagelliform stolons.

 

2.   Pappus double, with short bristles outside the long ones; rays 125‑175; leaves coriaceous, mostly entire; stolons absent (s = 2x) ..

....  E. glabellus var. pubescens - stream-side fleabane.

 

2.   Pappus simple; rays 50‑80 (‑100); leaves softer, mostly toothed; stolons present (s = 2x) ..

....  E. pulchellus var. pulchellus - Robin's plantain.

 


 

1.   Disk corollas less than 3.5 mm long; rays 1 mm wide or less; inflorescence usually with more than 9 heads; annuals to short-lived perennials, lacking both a ligneous caudex and stolons.

 

3.    Disk corollas 2.5 mm long or more; pappus simple, of long capillary bristles in BOTH disk and ray florets; rays 150‑400, commonly pink; short-lived perennials (s = 2x) ..

....  E. philadelphicus - common fleabane.

 

3.    Disk corollas 2.5 mm long or less; pappus of DISK florets double, with short, slender outer scales surrounding long capillary bristles, BUT pappus of RAY florets lacking the long bristles; rays 50‑100; commonly white; annuals or rarely short-lived perennials.

 

4.  Pubescence of stem (half-way up the plant) sparsely spreading-hispid; leaves membranous, coarsely toothed; plants robust, mostly 6‑15 dm tall (s = 2x, 3x, 6x)

....  E. annuus - annual fleabane.

 

4.  Pubescence of stem (half-way up the plant) minutely cinereous-strigose; leaves firm, entire or nearly so; plants more slender, mostly 3‑7 (‑9) dm tall (s = 2x, 3x, 4x)

....  E. strigosus - prairie or daisy fleabane.

 

5.   Hairs on phyllaries flattened, 0.5-1.2 mm long; hairs on stem appressed to spreading, 0.5-1 mm long         

........  var. septentrionalis.

 

5.   Hairs on phyllaries terete, mostly 0.1-0.5 mm long; hairs on stem appressed to ascending, 0.1-0.4 (‑0.8) mm long         

........  var. strigosus.

 

 

EUTHAMIA - flat-topped goldenrod

 

(x = 9)

 

1.   Leaves evidently 3‑nerved, the larger ones ordinarily with 1 or 2 additional pairs of fainter lateral nerves, 2‑12 mm wide and 4‑13 cm long, with less conspicuous punctation; heads slenderly campanulate to turbinate, chiefly sessile or subsessile in small glomerules, mostly 20‑35 (‑45) flowered; throughout Wisconsin (s = 2x) .

...........  E. graminifolia - grass-leaved or common flat-topped goldenrod.

 

1.   Leaves 1‑nerved or sometimes faintly 3‑nerved, but without any additional nerves, 2‑5 mm (rarely 6 mm) wide and 4‑9 cm long, with conspicuous, dark and viscid punctation; heads slenderly cylindric (becoming slenderly turbinate on pressing) , tending to be evidently pedicellate, mostly 10‑21 flowered; south of the Tension Zone.

 

2.  Leaves relatively thick and firm, ordinarily without axillary fascicles; involucre (4.5‑) 5‑6.5 mm long (s = 4x, 6x) ..

....  E. gymnospermoides - Great Plains flat‑topped goldenrod.

 

2.  Leaves relatively thin and lax, commonly with well-developed axillary fascicles; involucre 3‑4.5 (‑5) mm long (s = 2x) ..

....  E. caroliniana (E. tenuifolia) - coastal plain flat-topped goldenrod.

 

 

GRINDELIA - gumweed

 

(s = 2x; x = 6)

 

1.   Involucre heavily glutinous; phyllaries strongly recurving at tip; leaf margin (when not entire) crenate to serrate ..

...........  G. squarrosa - curly-cup gumweed.

 

1.   Involucre barely glutinous; phyllaries loosely spreading; leaf margin (when not entire) sharply serrulate with bristle-tipped teeth; very rare adventive

...........  G. lanceolata - spiny-tooth gumweed.

 

 

HETEROTHECA (CHRYSOPSIS) - golden aster

 

(Source: FNA, 2006.)

 

(s = 2x, 4x; x = 9)

 

........  H. villosa - hairy golden aster.

 

1.   Stems and distal cauline leaves sparsely to densely stipitate glandular (sparsely to densely hispid-strigose, as well) .

.........  var. minor.

 

1.   Stems and distal cauline leaves eglandular or sparsely stipitate glandular (moderately to densely hispid-strigose, as well).

 

2.  Subtending bracts of heads long, often longer than the heads; distal cauline leaves oblong (narrowly to broadly); stems often abundantly long-hirsute .....

.......  var. Ballardii.

 

2.  Subtending bracts of heads short or absent; distal cauline leaves oblanceolate (narrowly to broadly); stems only sparsely to moderately long-hirsute .....

.........  var. villosa.

 

 


 

SOLIDAGO - goldenrod

 

(Source: Salamun 1963; references: Fernald, 1950; Cronquist in Gleason, 1952; Semple et al., 1999; FNA, 2006.)

 

(x = 9)

 

1.   Heads in flat corymbiform inflorescences ....

...  Key 1.

 

1.   Heads in clusters or short racemes in the axils of upper leaves OR on elongate branches forming racemose, thyrsoid or spreading panicles.

 

2.  Inflorescence a series of clusters or short racemes in the axils of upper cauline leaves OR, if a terminal panicle or thyrse with erect summit, the HEADS SPIRALLY ARRANGED ON THE BRANCHES, THUS NOT SECUND

...  Key 2.

 

2.  Inflorescence a terminal panicle with nodding summit and with at least the lower branches more or less recurved; HEADS SECUND (one sided) , viz., borne on the upper side of the branches .

...  Key 3.

 

 Key 1

 

1.   Cauline leaves elliptic, broadly lanceolate to broadly ovate, densely pubescent above and below; stems densely pubescent; plants of mesic-dry habitats, common, mostly south of the Tension Zone .....

 .....S. rigida - stiff goldenrod.

 

2.    Inner phyllaries glabrate to sparsely strigillose, oblong and rounded; plants robust (6‑15 dm); inflorescences loose, open; leaves and stems coarsely hispid; E North America (s = 2x, 4x) ..

.........  subsp. rigida.

 

2.    Inner phyllaries conspicuously strigillose,often linear; plants usually short (3‑7 dm) , sometimes taller; inflorescences compact; leaves and stems finely and densely hispid-strigose; central North America (s = 2x)

.........  subsp. humilis.

 

1.   Leaves glabrous to sparsely short pubescent.

 

3.    Rays white (rarely cream colored); cauline leaves linear, stiff, glabrous to sparsely short pubescent; dry, mostly calcareous, rocks, bluffs and sands (s = 2x) 

....  S. ptarmicoides (S. asteroides) - upland white aster or goldenrod.

 

3.    Rays yellow; cauline leaves narrowly elliptic to linear-lanceolate, glabrous except for scabrous margins; plants of marshes, swamps, wet prairies and moist calcareous meadows.

 

4.  Basal and lower cauline leaves narrowly elliptic, flat, obtuse or rounded at the tip, often serrate above the middle, not triple-nerved; southeastern Wisconsin and Door County (s = 2x)

..  S. ohioensis - Ohio goldenrod.

 

4.  Basal and lower cauline leaves linear-lanceolate, often longitudinally folded, acute, entire, tending to be triple-nerved; southeastern Wisconsin (s = 2x)

..  S. Riddellii - Riddell's goldenrod.

 

 Key 2.

 

1.   Inflorescence a series of axillary clusters or short racemes, all but the uppermost of which are exceeded by their subtending leaves.

 

2.  Cauline leaves lanceolate, acuminate, tapering to a sessile or obscurely short-petiolate base; stem glabrous, glaucous, terete; rare, in southeastern-most Wisconsin (s = 2x) ..

....  S. caesia - axillary or blue-stemmed goldenrod.

 

2.  Cauline leaves ovate to elliptic, abruptly acuminate at the tip, abruptly narrowed to a short winged petiole; stem glabrous or slightly pubescent above, somewhat angled; widespread (s = 2x, 4x) ..

....  S. flexicaulis - broad-leaved or zigzag goldenrod.

 

1.   Inflorescence a terminal panicle or thyrse, OR, if of axillary clusters or racemes, only the lowermost exceeded by the subtending leaves.

 

3.    Lower cauline leaves, including petioles, mostly 7‑15 times as long as wide, petioles with sheathing bases; plants of marshes and bogs (s = 2x, 4x) ..

....  S. uliginosa - northern bog goldenrod.

 

3.    Lower cauline leaves, including petioles, seldom more than 7 times as long as wide, if longer, then without sheathing petioles; plants chiefly of upland areas.

 

4.    Involucres mostly 5‑9 mm long; many pedicels 5‑15 mm long; very local, Door County (s = 4x)

..  S. simplex [subsp. Randii] var. Gillmanii - dune goldenrod.

 

4.    Involucres mostly 3‑5 mm (sometimes 6 mm) long; pedicels mostly less than 5 mm long.

 

5.   Stems pubescent from base through inflorescence; leaves pubescent above and below.

 

6.  Rays cream-colored to nearly white; outer phyllaries usually with strongly contrasting green tips and whitish to stramineous bases and margins (s = 2x)  

...  S. bicolor - white goldenrod.

 

6.  Rays orange-yellow; outer phyllaries usually with less contrasting coloring (s = 2x)  

...  S. hispida - hairy goldenrod.

 

5.    Stems glabrous except for occasional sparse puberulence in the inflorescence and on the uppermost stem; leaves glabrous except for hispidulous margins, sometimes sparsely pubescence beneath.

 

7.  Achenes short-hairy; basal and lower cauline leaves broadly spatulate to obovate, sharply serrate; mostly on cliffs, in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin (s = 4x)  

...  S. sciaphila - cliff goldenrod.

 

7.  Achenes glabrous; basal and lower cauline leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, crenate-serrate; widespread (s = 2x, 4x, 6x)  

...  S. speciosa - showy goldenrod.

 

8.  Basal leaves 0.8-2 cm wide, often entire or shallowly serrate, sometimes absent at flowering time; mid cauline leaves 0.4-1.5 (‑2) cm wide, often crowded, stiff, and somewhat scabrous; central North America       

......  var. rigidiuscula.

 

8.  Basal leaves (2‑) 2.8-5.5 cm wide, often coarsely serrate and usually present at flowering time; mid cauline leaves (1‑) 2-2.9 cm wide, not crowded, stiff, or scabrous; E North America       

......  var. speciosa.

 

Key 3.

 

1.   Leaves pinnately veined, the lateral veins not conspicuously prolonged parallel with the midrib.

 

2.    Basal and lower cauline leaves mostly smaller than the middle ones, deciduous and lacking at flowering time; cauline leaves reduced only slightly upwards (s = 2x, 4x) ..

....  S. rugosa - wrinkle-leaved goldenrod.

 

2.    Basal and lower cauline leaves the largest, persistent at flowering time; cauline leaves progressively reduced upwards.

 

3. Stems pubescent or scabrous their entire length; very widespread

..  S. nemoralis - gray or old-field goldenrod.

 

4.    Pappus at most barely exceeding tubes of ray corollas and bases of lobes of disk corollas; lobes of disk corollas 0.5‑0.9 (‑1) mm long; involucres usually 2.6‑4.2 mm long (longer in tetraploids); achenes usually only sparsely strigose; basal leaves usually crenate, oblanceolate to obovate; E North America (s = 2x, 4x)         

........  var. nemoralis.

 

4.    Pappus usually exceeding tubes of ray corollas and bases of lobes of disk corollas; lobes of disk corollas (0.6‑) 0.8‑1.5 mm long; involucres usually 4.6‑5.8 mm long; achenes moderately strigose; basal leaves usually not crenate, often linear-oblanceolate; central North America (s = 4x)         

........  var. decemflora.

 

3.    Stems glabrous or only slightly pubescent in the upper portion below the inflorescence.

 

5.          Upper surface of leaves strongly scabrous; upper portions of stems strongly angled (s = 2x)         

........  S. patula var. patula - rough-leaved or swamp goldenrod.

 

5.          Upper surface of leaves only slightly pubescent or glabrous; stems terete.

 

6.   Basal and lower cauline leaves elliptic or elliptic-ovate and abruptly tapering to the petiole, loosely hirsute on midrib and main veins beneath; inflorescence an open panicle with a few long, slender and strongly divergent or arched ascending branches (s = 2x)       

......  S. ulmifolia var. ulmifolia - elm-leaved goldenrod.

 

6.    Basal and lower cauline leaves with long-tapering bases, glabrous or sometimes short hirsute on both surfaces; inflorescence more or less compact.

 

7. Plant with stout branched caudex and fibrous roots; basal and lower cauline leaves mostly 2‑7.5 cm wide; achenes short-hairy; throughout Wisconsin (s = 2x)

...........  S. juncea - early goldenrod.

 

7. Plant with creeping rhizome; basal and lower cauline leaves mostly 0.5‑2 cm wide; achenes glabrous or sparsely-hairy; prairies south of Tension Zone (s = 2x [4x])

...........  S. missouriensis - Missouri goldenrod.

 

1.   Leaves triple-nerved, i.e., the two obvious lateral nerves prolonged parallel with the midrib.

 

8.    Stems more or less pubescent or scabrous, at least in the upper portion below the inflorescence.


 

9.   Cauline leaves obovate, oblanceolate to linear, entire or sparingly serrate, obscurely 3‑nerved; basal leaves present at flowering time; very widespread (s = 2x, 4x)

..  S. nemoralis - gray or old-field goldenrod.

 (See couplet 4 for varieties.)

 

9.    Cauline leaves mostly lanceolate to ovate, evidently 3‑nerved; basal leaves wanting or deciduous at flowering time.

 

10.  Cauline leaves canescent on both surfaces, mostly ovate to elliptic, acute to roundish at the tips; very rare adventive (s = 2x, 4x, 6x)         

........  S. mollis - velvety goldenrod.

 

10.  Cauline leaves glabrous to puberulent beneath, glabrous or scabrous above, mostly narrowly lance-elliptic, acuminate at the tips; widespread species.

 

11.  Involucres 2‑3 mm long (s = 2x)  

...  S. canadensis - Canada goldenrod.

 

12. Lower half of stems glabrous to sparsely hairy; 7‑15 (‑18) ray florets per head      

......  var. canadensis.

 

12. Lower half of stems moderately hairy; 5‑10 (‑13) ray florets per head, averaging ca. 9       

......  var. Hargeri.

 

11.  Involucres 3‑6 mm long.

 

13.  Mid to upper leaves serrate, glabrous or scabrous above, pubescent on the veins beneath; stem pilose chiefly above the middle (s = 2x)       

......  S. canadensis - Canada goldenrod.

 (See couplet 12 for varieties.)

 

13.  Mid to upper leaves minutely serrate to entire, scabrous above, densely pubescent beneath; stem grayish with close puberulence throughout, except sometimes near the base (s = 4x, 6x)       

......  S. altissima - Canada goldenrod.

 

8.    Stems glabrous below the inflorescence.

 

14.  Basal and lower cauline leaves the largest, persistent at flowering time; cauline leaves progressively reduced upwards.

 

 

15.  Basal and lower cauline leaves mostly 2‑7.5 cm wide, scarcely 3‑nerved, glabrous except for ciliate margins, sometimes sparingly hirsute on one or both surfaces; achenes short-hairy; throughout Wisconsin (s = 2x)         

........  S. juncea - early goldenrod.

 

15.  Basal and lower cauline leaves mostly 0.5‑2 cm wide, more or less strongly 3‑nerved, glabrous except for ciliate margins; achenes glabrous or sparsely hairy; prairies south of Tension Zone (s = 2x [4x])         

........  S. missouriensis - Missouri goldenrod.

 

14.  Basal and lower cauline leaves mostly smaller than the middle ones, deciduous and lacking at flowering time; cauline leaves reduced only slightly upwards.

 

16.   Branchlets of panicle and peduncles glabrous; prairies south of Tension Zone (s = 2x [4x])         

........  S. missouriensis - Missouri goldenrod.

 

16.   Branchlets of panicle and peduncles more or less pilose; throughout Wisconsin (s = 2x, 4x, 6x)         

........  S. gigantea - smooth goldenrod.

 


         
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