Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium


Plants of Wisconsin

Vascular Plants



          Tribe 5. GNAPHALIEAE - the pussy's-toes tribe


        (Source: Beals and Peters, 1966; FNA, 2006; edited by R. R. Kowal, 2006 July 30.)


1.   Cauline leaves few, much smaller than those of the persistent basal rosette, strongly ascending; stolons present; plants either staminate or pistillate, populations dioecious (or with only pistillate plants in agamospermous taxa) .....

................  ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes.


1.   Cauline leaves many, about the same size as the basal leaves, which soon wither; stolons absent.


2.    Phyllaries pure white, with conspicuous, longitudinal creases creating the appearance of wrinkled tissue paper; populations dioecious, although pistillate plants often with heads having a few staminate florets in the center; dried plants without a strong odor

.........  ANAPHALIS - everlasting.


2.    Phyllaries grayish white, yellow or brown, scarious, with very small longitudinal ridges but no conspicuous creases; heads bisexual, with pistillate florets marginally and staminate heads in center; dried plants with strong tobacco-like odor.


3.    Perennial with narrow, spiciform or subcapitate inflorescence; achenes sparsely strigose; boreal (Outer Island of Apostle Islands) .

........  OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed.


3.    Annual or biennial; inflorescence various; achenes smooth or papillate.


4.    Heads 2‑3 mm long, in capitate leafy-bracted clusters; upper stems very densely white-floccose-tomentose, obvious to the naked eye; stems usually much branched, 1‑2 dm tall         

........  GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed.


4.    Heads 4‑6 mm long, capitate or corymbose; upper stems with appressed or nearly microscopic loose-spreading tomentum; stems erect, seldom branching except within a corymbose inflorescence, 1‑10 dm tall         

........  PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed.



ANAPHALIS - everlasting


     (s = 2x; x = 14)


........  A. margaritacea - pearly everlasting.




  ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes, everlasting, ladies'-tobacco


(Source: Beals and Peters, 1966; Bayer and Stebbins, 1982; Bayer, 1989.  Edited by R. R. Kowal to include only Wisconsin species.)


(x = 14)


1.   Basal leaves with 3‑7 prominent nerves.


2.. Pistillate involucres 5‑7 mm long; pistillate corollas 3‑4 mm long; staminate corollas 2‑3.5 mm long; basal leaves tomentose adaxially; young stolons mostly ascending; staminate and pistillate plants equally common; plants of Appalachians, Piedmont, the Atlantic seaboard, and the Driftless Area of Wisconsin and Minnesota (s = 2x) ..

....  A. plantaginifolia - plantain-leaved pussy's-toes.


2.. Pistillate involucres 7‑10 mm long; pistillate corollas 4‑7 mm long; staminate corollas 3.5‑5 mm long; basal leaves tomentose or glabrous adaxially; young stolons mostly lying flat with only the tips ascending [decumbent]; sexual and agamospermous populations present; plants widespread throughout the eastern United States (s = 4x, 5x, 6x, 8x) ..

....  A. Parlinii - Parlin's pussy's-toes.


3.  Basal leaves glabrous adaxially or nearly so; summit of young cauline stem usually glandular .

....  subsp. Parlinii.


3.  Basal leaves tomentose adaxially; summit of young cauline stem usually glandless .

....  subsp. fallax (A. munda).


1.   Basal leaves with 1 prominent nerve.


4.   Stolons 5‑8 cm long, lying flat but with tips ascending [decumbent], leaves along the stolon about equal in size to those of the basal rosette; basal leaves having a distinct petiole or nearly so; plants widespread north of glacial margin in the eastern United States; pistillate plants common, staminate rare or absent (s = 4x, 6x) ..

....  A. Howellii subsp. neodioica.


4.   Stolons 8‑12 cm long, lying flat [procumbent], leaves along the stolon smaller than those of the basal rosette; basal leaves gradually tapering to the base, non-petiolate.


5.  Young leaves glabrous adaxially, bright green; pistillate plants common, staminate rare or absent; widespread above terminal glacial margin (s = 4x, 6x)

....  A. Howellii subsp. canadensis.


5.  Young leaves tomentose adaxially, gray-green; staminate plants equal in number to pistillate or completely absent.



6.  Upper cauline leaves tipped by a flat or curled, scarious, flag-like tip; phyllaries brown at base; pistillate and staminate plants equally common (s = 2x)         

........  A. neglecta.


6.  Upper cauline leaves subulate or only those about the corymb scarious-tipped; phyllaries white or green at base; pistillate plants only, staminate absent (s = 4x, 6x)         

........  A. Howellii subsp. petaloidea.



  GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed


(s = 2x; x = 7)


........  Gn. (Fillaginella) uliginosum - marsh cudweed.



PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed, everlasting


        (Source: Ralph F. Peters in Beals and Peters, 1966;

   Ballard and Kowal, 1994; Feller, 2000; FNA 2006.)


           (x = 7)


1.   Leaf bases decurrent; middle or lower stem with glandular-hirsute pubescence 0.2‑0.5 (‑1) mm long; leaves usually 10‑15 times as long as wide, tapering gradually to an acute tip; achenes distinctly papillate under high magnification (s = 4x)

.........  Ps. (Gnaphalium) Macounii - western or clammy cudweed.


1.   Leaf bases not decurrent; middle or lower stem with glandular-hirsute pubescence less than 0.25 mm long or lacking; leaves usually only 7‑10 times as long as wide, tapering more abruptly to the acute tip; achenes ridged but glabrous and not papillate.


2.    Stem glandular-puberulent, scarcely wooly except in inflorescence

.....  Ps. microdenium (Gnaphalium Helleri var. microdenium) - delicate cudweed.


2.    Stem wooly, scarcely glandular except at base.


3. Plants biennial, 1.5‑10 dm tall, first year's individuals only vegetative rosettes; tomentum of stem dense and close; leaves glandular, with crisped margins; phyllaries rounded or obtusely pointed at tip; common throughout all but northernmost Wisconsin (s = 4x)

....  Ps. (Gnaphalium) obtusifolium - fragrant cudweed.


3. Plants annual, 0.1‑3 dm tall, no vegetative rosettes in population; tomentum of stem loose and flocculent; leaves eglandular, with flat margins; phyllaries linear, acute and often toothed at tip; ledges of sandstone cliffs along Wisconsin, Kickapoo and Pine Rivers in the Driftless Area, rare .

....  Ps. (Gnaphalium) saxicola - cliff cudweed.



OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed


     (s = 4x; x = 14)


             ....O.  (Gnaphalium) sylvatica - woodland Arctic-cudweed.

Botany News/Events
Book We Recommend
Historical Botanists
Other Links
Botanical Club of Wisconsin (off site)
UW-Stevens Point Biology Dept.
Plants of Wisconsin
Vascular Plants
Natural Communities
Botany News/Events
Other Links
Lichens (off site)   
Tom Volk's Fungi (off site)
Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
                          Vascular Plants
Browse by Identification Guides
Family Wildflowers
Genus Trees
Common Names Shrubs
Search by Vines
Names Aquatic-Semi aquatic
Specimens Ferns - Fern Allies
Blooming Times Grasses, Sedges, or Rushes
County & Status Other Resources  
Town Range Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
  WI Checklist & CofC Values
Browse by:
Common Name
Search by:
Copyright 2012 Permissions Contact Us Web Map