KEY to the WISCONSIN ASTERACEAE
Tribe 5. GNAPHALIEAE - the pussy's-toes tribe
(Source: Beals and Peters, 1966; FNA, 2006; edited by R. R. Kowal, 2006 July 30.)
1. Cauline leaves few, much smaller than those of the persistent basal rosette, strongly ascending; stolons present; plants either staminate or pistillate, populations dioecious (or with only pistillate plants in agamospermous taxa) .....
................ ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes.
1. Cauline leaves many, about the same size as the basal leaves, which soon wither; stolons absent.
2. Phyllaries pure white, with conspicuous, longitudinal creases creating the appearance of wrinkled tissue paper; populations dioecious, although pistillate plants often with heads having a few staminate florets in the center; dried plants without a strong odor
......... ANAPHALIS - everlasting.
2. Phyllaries grayish white, yellow or brown, scarious, with very small longitudinal ridges but no conspicuous creases; heads bisexual, with pistillate florets marginally and staminate heads in center; dried plants with strong tobacco-like odor.
3. Perennial with narrow, spiciform or subcapitate inflorescence; achenes sparsely strigose; boreal (Outer Island of Apostle Islands) .
........ OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed.
3. Annual or biennial; inflorescence various; achenes smooth or papillate.
4. Heads 2‑3 mm long, in capitate leafy-bracted clusters; upper stems very densely white-floccose-tomentose, obvious to the naked eye; stems usually much branched, 1‑2 dm tall
........ GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed.
4. Heads 4‑6 mm long, capitate or corymbose; upper stems with appressed or nearly microscopic loose-spreading tomentum; stems erect, seldom branching except within a corymbose inflorescence, 1‑10 dm tall
........ PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed.
ANAPHALIS - everlasting
(s = 2x; x = 14)
........ A. margaritacea - pearly everlasting.
ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes, everlasting, ladies'-tobacco
(Source: Beals and Peters, 1966; Bayer and Stebbins, 1982; Bayer, 1989. Edited by R. R. Kowal to include only Wisconsin species.)
(x = 14)
1. Basal leaves with 3‑7 prominent nerves.
2.. Pistillate involucres 5‑7 mm long; pistillate corollas 3‑4 mm long; staminate corollas 2‑3.5 mm long; basal leaves tomentose adaxially; young stolons mostly ascending; staminate and pistillate plants equally common; plants of Appalachians, Piedmont, the Atlantic seaboard, and the Driftless Area of Wisconsin and Minnesota (s = 2x) ..
.... A. plantaginifolia - plantain-leaved pussy's-toes.
2.. Pistillate involucres 7‑10 mm long; pistillate corollas 4‑7 mm long; staminate corollas 3.5‑5 mm long; basal leaves tomentose or glabrous adaxially; young stolons mostly lying flat with only the tips ascending [decumbent]; sexual and agamospermous populations present; plants widespread throughout the eastern United States (s = 4x, 5x, 6x, 8x) ..
.... A. Parlinii - Parlin's pussy's-toes.
3. Basal leaves glabrous adaxially or nearly so; summit of young cauline stem usually glandular .
.... subsp. Parlinii.
3. Basal leaves tomentose adaxially; summit of young cauline stem usually glandless .
.... subsp. fallax (A. munda).
1. Basal leaves with 1 prominent nerve.
4. Stolons 5‑8 cm long, lying flat but with tips ascending [decumbent], leaves along the stolon about equal in size to those of the basal rosette; basal leaves having a distinct petiole or nearly so; plants widespread north of glacial margin in the eastern United States; pistillate plants common, staminate rare or absent (s = 4x, 6x) ..
4. Stolons 8‑12 cm long, lying flat [procumbent], leaves along the stolon smaller than those of the basal rosette; basal leaves gradually tapering to the base, non-petiolate.
5. Young leaves glabrous adaxially, bright green; pistillate plants common, staminate rare or absent; widespread above terminal glacial margin (s = 4x, 6x)
5. Young leaves tomentose adaxially, gray-green; staminate plants equal in number to pistillate or completely absent.
6. Upper cauline leaves tipped by a flat or curled, scarious, flag-like tip; phyllaries brown at base; pistillate and staminate plants equally common (s = 2x)
........ A. neglecta.
6. Upper cauline leaves subulate or only those about the corymb scarious-tipped; phyllaries white or green at base; pistillate plants only, staminate absent (s = 4x, 6x)
........ A. Howellii subsp. petaloidea.
GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed
(s = 2x; x = 7)
........ Gn. (Fillaginella) uliginosum - marsh cudweed.
PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed, everlasting
(Source: Ralph F. Peters in Beals and Peters, 1966;
Ballard and Kowal, 1994; Feller, 2000; FNA 2006.)
(x = 7)
1. Leaf bases decurrent; middle or lower stem with glandular-hirsute pubescence 0.2‑0.5 (‑1) mm long; leaves usually 10‑15 times as long as wide, tapering gradually to an acute tip; achenes distinctly papillate under high magnification (s = 4x)
......... Ps. (Gnaphalium) Macounii - western or clammy cudweed.
1. Leaf bases not decurrent; middle or lower stem with glandular-hirsute pubescence less than 0.25 mm long or lacking; leaves usually only 7‑10 times as long as wide, tapering more abruptly to the acute tip; achenes ridged but glabrous and not papillate.
2. Stem glandular-puberulent, scarcely wooly except in inflorescence
..... Ps. microdenium (Gnaphalium Helleri var. microdenium) - delicate cudweed.
2. Stem wooly, scarcely glandular except at base.
3. Plants biennial, 1.5‑10 dm tall, first year's individuals only vegetative rosettes; tomentum of stem dense and close; leaves glandular, with crisped margins; phyllaries rounded or obtusely pointed at tip; common throughout all but northernmost Wisconsin (s = 4x)
.... Ps. (Gnaphalium) obtusifolium - fragrant cudweed.
3. Plants annual, 0.1‑3 dm tall, no vegetative rosettes in population; tomentum of stem loose and flocculent; leaves eglandular, with flat margins; phyllaries linear, acute and often toothed at tip; ledges of sandstone cliffs along Wisconsin, Kickapoo and Pine Rivers in the Driftless Area, rare .
.... Ps. (Gnaphalium) saxicola - cliff cudweed.
OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed
(s = 4x; x = 14)
....O. (Gnaphalium) sylvatica - woodland Arctic-cudweed.
Plants of Wisconsin
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