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KEY to the WISCONSIN ASTERACEAE

 

          Tribe 5. GNAPHALIEAE - the pussy's-toes tribe

 

        (Source: Beals and Peters, 1966; FNA, 2006; edited by R. R. Kowal, 2006 July 30.)

 

1.   Cauline leaves few, much smaller than those of the persistent basal rosette, strongly ascending; stolons present; plants either staminate or pistillate, populations dioecious (or with only pistillate plants in agamospermous taxa) .....

................  ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes.

 

1.   Cauline leaves many, about the same size as the basal leaves, which soon wither; stolons absent.

 

2.    Phyllaries pure white, with conspicuous, longitudinal creases creating the appearance of wrinkled tissue paper; populations dioecious, although pistillate plants often with heads having a few staminate florets in the center; dried plants without a strong odor

.........  ANAPHALIS - everlasting.

 

2.    Phyllaries grayish white, yellow or brown, scarious, with very small longitudinal ridges but no conspicuous creases; heads bisexual, with pistillate florets marginally and staminate heads in center; dried plants with strong tobacco-like odor.

 

3.    Perennial with narrow, spiciform or subcapitate inflorescence; achenes sparsely strigose; boreal (Outer Island of Apostle Islands) .

........  OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed.

 

3.    Annual or biennial; inflorescence various; achenes smooth or papillate.

 

4.    Heads 2‑3 mm long, in capitate leafy-bracted clusters; upper stems very densely white-floccose-tomentose, obvious to the naked eye; stems usually much branched, 1‑2 dm tall         

........  GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed.

 

4.    Heads 4‑6 mm long, capitate or corymbose; upper stems with appressed or nearly microscopic loose-spreading tomentum; stems erect, seldom branching except within a corymbose inflorescence, 1‑10 dm tall         

........  PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed.

 

 

ANAPHALIS - everlasting

 

     (s = 2x; x = 14)

 

........  A. margaritacea - pearly everlasting.

 

 


 

  ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes, everlasting, ladies'-tobacco

 

(Source: Beals and Peters, 1966; Bayer and Stebbins, 1982; Bayer, 1989.  Edited by R. R. Kowal to include only Wisconsin species.)

 

(x = 14)

 

1.   Basal leaves with 3‑7 prominent nerves.

 

2.. Pistillate involucres 5‑7 mm long; pistillate corollas 3‑4 mm long; staminate corollas 2‑3.5 mm long; basal leaves tomentose adaxially; young stolons mostly ascending; staminate and pistillate plants equally common; plants of Appalachians, Piedmont, the Atlantic seaboard, and the Driftless Area of Wisconsin and Minnesota (s = 2x) ..

....  A. plantaginifolia - plantain-leaved pussy's-toes.

 

2.. Pistillate involucres 7‑10 mm long; pistillate corollas 4‑7 mm long; staminate corollas 3.5‑5 mm long; basal leaves tomentose or glabrous adaxially; young stolons mostly lying flat with only the tips ascending [decumbent]; sexual and agamospermous populations present; plants widespread throughout the eastern United States (s = 4x, 5x, 6x, 8x) ..

....  A. Parlinii - Parlin's pussy's-toes.

 

3.  Basal leaves glabrous adaxially or nearly so; summit of young cauline stem usually glandular .

....  subsp. Parlinii.

 

3.  Basal leaves tomentose adaxially; summit of young cauline stem usually glandless .

....  subsp. fallax (A. munda).

 

1.   Basal leaves with 1 prominent nerve.

 

4.   Stolons 5‑8 cm long, lying flat but with tips ascending [decumbent], leaves along the stolon about equal in size to those of the basal rosette; basal leaves having a distinct petiole or nearly so; plants widespread north of glacial margin in the eastern United States; pistillate plants common, staminate rare or absent (s = 4x, 6x) ..

....  A. Howellii subsp. neodioica.

 

4.   Stolons 8‑12 cm long, lying flat [procumbent], leaves along the stolon smaller than those of the basal rosette; basal leaves gradually tapering to the base, non-petiolate.

 

5.  Young leaves glabrous adaxially, bright green; pistillate plants common, staminate rare or absent; widespread above terminal glacial margin (s = 4x, 6x)

....  A. Howellii subsp. canadensis.

 

5.  Young leaves tomentose adaxially, gray-green; staminate plants equal in number to pistillate or completely absent.

 


 

6.  Upper cauline leaves tipped by a flat or curled, scarious, flag-like tip; phyllaries brown at base; pistillate and staminate plants equally common (s = 2x)         

........  A. neglecta.

 

6.  Upper cauline leaves subulate or only those about the corymb scarious-tipped; phyllaries white or green at base; pistillate plants only, staminate absent (s = 4x, 6x)         

........  A. Howellii subsp. petaloidea.

 

 

  GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed

 

(s = 2x; x = 7)

 

........  Gn. (Fillaginella) uliginosum - marsh cudweed.

 

 

PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed, everlasting

 

        (Source: Ralph F. Peters in Beals and Peters, 1966;

   Ballard and Kowal, 1994; Feller, 2000; FNA 2006.)

 

           (x = 7)

 

1.   Leaf bases decurrent; middle or lower stem with glandular-hirsute pubescence 0.2‑0.5 (‑1) mm long; leaves usually 10‑15 times as long as wide, tapering gradually to an acute tip; achenes distinctly papillate under high magnification (s = 4x)

.........  Ps. (Gnaphalium) Macounii - western or clammy cudweed.

 

1.   Leaf bases not decurrent; middle or lower stem with glandular-hirsute pubescence less than 0.25 mm long or lacking; leaves usually only 7‑10 times as long as wide, tapering more abruptly to the acute tip; achenes ridged but glabrous and not papillate.

 

2.    Stem glandular-puberulent, scarcely wooly except in inflorescence

.....  Ps. microdenium (Gnaphalium Helleri var. microdenium) - delicate cudweed.

 

2.    Stem wooly, scarcely glandular except at base.

 

3. Plants biennial, 1.5‑10 dm tall, first year's individuals only vegetative rosettes; tomentum of stem dense and close; leaves glandular, with crisped margins; phyllaries rounded or obtusely pointed at tip; common throughout all but northernmost Wisconsin (s = 4x)

....  Ps. (Gnaphalium) obtusifolium - fragrant cudweed.

 

3. Plants annual, 0.1‑3 dm tall, no vegetative rosettes in population; tomentum of stem loose and flocculent; leaves eglandular, with flat margins; phyllaries linear, acute and often toothed at tip; ledges of sandstone cliffs along Wisconsin, Kickapoo and Pine Rivers in the Driftless Area, rare .

....  Ps. (Gnaphalium) saxicola - cliff cudweed.

 


 

OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed

 

     (s = 4x; x = 14)

 

             ....O.  (Gnaphalium) sylvatica - woodland Arctic-cudweed.


         
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