Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium



Tribe 10. HELIANTHEAE (s.l.) - sunflower tribe

(Including Panero & Funk's (2002) tribes MADIEAE [Madia], COREOPSIDEAE [Bidens, Coreopsis, Cosmos], POLYMNIEAE [Polymnia], TRIBUS INCOGNITUS [Eclipta, Galinsoga].)


(Sources Melchert, 1960, unpublished; FNA, 2006;

edited by R. R. Kowal, 2006 Aug 2.)


(Rare waif, presumably from bird seed: Guizzotia abyssinica - niger-seed.

Not in FNA, 2006.)


[For the wind‑pollinated subtribe Ambrosiinae, go to Tribe 10a. HELIANTHEAE subtribe AMBROSIINAE - ragweed subtribe.  For subtribe Eupatoriinae, go to Tribe 10b. HELIANTHEAE subtribe EUPATORIINAE - boneset subtribe.  See KEY TO TRIBES for characters of these two subtribes.]


1.   Phyllaries (some or all) highly modified, either infolding outer achenes or united into a cup or tube; strongly scented annuals; very rare adventives or escapes from cultivation.


2.    Phyllaries free, outer (or larger) laterally compressed and infolding the laterally compressed achene; cauline leaves mostly alternate and unlobed; stems viscid and glandular pubescent

.........  MADIA - tarweed.


2.    Phyllaries (at least innermost) united into a cup or tube, none inclosing the opposite flower or achene; cauline leaves mostly opposite and pinnately lobed; stems glabrous or glabrate.


3. Involucre a cup, with loose phyllaries at base of the united series; receptacle bearing slender chaff; pappus of chaffy scales dissected into numerous, long bristles

..  DYSSODIA - fetid marigold.


3. Involucre a tube, naked at base; receptacle honeycombed; scales of pappus entire .

.... TAGETES - marigold


1.   Phyllaries not highly modified, free and not infolding outer achenes; annuals and perennials, not strongly scented.


4.    Involucre distinctly double, the outer larger (OR minute, 2 mm or less long) , foliaceous, somewhat spreading, the inner broader and appressed, nearly membranous.


5.     Pappus absent or of a few teeth         

........  COREOPSIS - coreopsis, tickseed.


5.     Pappus of 2 to 4 barbed awns.



6.  Achenes beakless, flattened or slender and 4-sided (rarely subterete)  

....  BIDENS - beggar‑ticks.


6.  Achenes long-beaked, slenderly fusiform, 5-angled and subterete  

....  COSMOS - cosmos.


4.    Involucre not double, phyllaries all about equal in length, the inner and outer similar in texture.


7.    Rays white or absent, if present, 1‑10 mm long; disk small, 3‑10 mm wide.


8.    Leaves alternate; heads whitish; leaves large, rough  



8.    Leaves opposite.


9.    Lower leaves deeply lobed, with connate-perfoliate expanded blade tissue at the nodes       

......  POLYMNIA - leafcup.


9.    Leaves not lobed, toothed, without such a foliaceous expansion at the nodes.


10.   Leaves, except the uppermost, petioled, the blades less than three times as long as wide

...........  GALINSOGA - quickweed.


10.   Leaves tapered to the base, not distinctly petioled, the blades more than three times as long as wide; Mississippi River, rare

...........  ECLIPTA.


7.    Rays yellow, orange or purple, generally 1‑6 cm long; disk generally large, (4‑) 10‑40 mm wide.


11.  Rays purple, the receptacular bracts spiny‑pointed  

....  ECHINACEA - coneflower.


11.  Rays yellow or orange.


12.  Disk florets staminate; ray florets pistillate, their large achenes broadly ovate, winged, strongly flattened parallel with the adjoining  phyllaries; plants large, usually resinous       

......  SILPHIUM - rosinweed.


12.  Disk florets bisexual; ray florets neuter or pistillate; achenes wingless, sub‑terete or angled.


13.  At least some of the leaves opposite OR all basal.


14.   Outer phyllaries shorter than the inner; ray florets neuter, their rays thin and easily wilting, deciduous     

....  HELIANTHUS - sunflower.


14.   Outer phyllaries longer than the inner; ray florets pistillate, their rays marcescent (thickish and persistent after flowering)     

....  HELIOPSIS - ox‑eye.


13.  Leaves all alternate.


15.  Disk flat or convex; leaves neither lobed nor divided.


16.  Leaves not decurrent; achenes 3‑ or 4‑angled, wingless, forming a flat head

.........  HELIANTHUS - sunflower.


16.  Leaves decurrent down the stem; achenes flat, usually winged, forming a globose head

.........  VERBESINA.


15.  Disk conical, hemispheric or columnar; leaves simple in Rudbeckia hirta, otherwise lobed, cleft, laciniate or pinnately parted.


17.  Leaves simple, 3‑lobed, or ‑cleft, or laciniate; rays not subtended by receptacular bracts; achenes 4‑sided

.........  RUDBECKIA - black‑eyed susan, coneflower.


17.  Leaves pinnately divided; rays subtended by receptacular bracts; achenes laterally flattened

.........  RATIBIDA - prairie coneflower.



BIDENS - beggar-ticks, stick‑tight


(Rare waif: B. pilosa - Spanish needles.  Not in FNA, 2006.)


1.   Plants strictly aquatic, submerged or floating, with leaves finely dissected into filiform segments suggesting whorls (s = 2x; x = 13)

............ B. (Megalodonta) Beckii - water beggar-ticks or water-marigold.


1.   Plants terrestrial (or rarely emergent in shallow water); leaves simple or pinnately divided, the segments lanceolate to linear.


2.       Leaves pinnately compound or tri‑foliolate.


3.    Leaves with 3 to 7 lance‑linear to linear segments; achenes with 2 to 4 awns, if 2‑awned the awns normally with a thin ciliate margin on the inner surface and on the summit of the achene; heads radiate or discoid.


4.    Rays, if developed, inconspicuous, to 8 mm long; achenes normally 4‑awned, occasionally 2‑ or 3‑awned, the awns aristate, without a thin margin; barbs on awns and on achene margins RETRORSE (s = 4x; x = 12)         

........  B. connata - purple-stem beggar-ticks or tickseed.


4.    Rays showy, 1‑3 cm long; achenes 2‑awned or awnless, the awns with a thin margin near the base; barbs on awns and achene margins antrorse or retrorse.


5.  Achenes broadly cuneate, oblanceolate, or obovate, 1.5 to 2.5 times as long as wide, margins hispid-ciliate and more-or-less corky winged; barbs on awns and achene margins antrorse or retrorse  

....  B. aristosa - mid-western tickseed-sunflower.


5.  Achenes narrowly cuneate-oblong, 2.5 to 4 times as long as wide, margins glabrous or strigose-ciliolate and not winged; barbs on awns and achene margins ANTRORSE (s = 2x; x = 12)  

.....  B. trichosperma (B. coronata) - northern tickseed-sunflower, tall swamp-marigold.


3.    Leaves 3‑ to 5‑foliolate; leaflets lanceolate to lance‑ovate; achenes 2‑awned; awns barb‑like, without a thin margin; heads discoid or with rays less than 5 mm long.


6.   Outer phyllaries 3 to 5, smooth‑margined (non‑ciliate) or nearly so; achenes with antrorsely barbed awns (B. frondosa forma anomala, rare in Wisconsin, also has antrorsely barbed awns)  (s = 2x; x = 12) .

....  B. discoidea - few-bracted or swamp beggar-ticks.


6.   Outer phyllaries 5 to many, ciliate, at least at the base; achenes with retrorsely barbed awns.


7.  Outer phyllaries usually 8 (5‑9) , the inner bracts oblong, equaling the disk (s = 2x, 4x, 6x; x = 12)         

........  B. frondosa - devil's or common beggar-ticks.


7.  Outer phyllaries usually 12 or 13 (10‑16) , the inner bracts ovate‑triangular, shorter than the disk (s = 2x, 4x; x = 12)         

........  B. vulgata - tall beggar-ticks.


2.    Leaves simple (sometimes lobed) , not compound.


8.    Stem usually hispid below; leaves linear to lanceolate, sessile or the lowermost sometimes slightly petioled; achenes with a convex cartilagenous summit, normally curved in the compacted head, the surface glabrous or with a few retrorse hairs (s = 2x, 4x; x = 12) .

....  B. cernua - nodding beggar-ticks or bur-marigold.


8.    Stem smooth; leaves lanceolate to ovate, with winged petioles; achenes without a convex cartilagenous summit, straight, the surface with antrorse OR retrorse hairs OR glabrous.


9.   Surface of achenes with ANTRORSE hairs, the margins of achenes usually with at least a few antrorse barbs near the base; achenes usually 4‑awned, occasionally 2 or 3‑awned (s = 4x; x = 12)         

........  B. connata - purple-stem beggar-ticks or tickseed.


9.   Surface of achenes GLABROUS or with a few RETRORSE hairs, the margins of achenes with retrorse barbs throughout; achenes 2 or 3‑awned (s = 4x; x = 12)         

........  B. tripartita (B. comosa) - straw-stem beggar-ticks, swamp-marigold.



COREOPSIS - coreopsis, tickseed


1.   Phyllaries of outer involucre minute, 2 mm or less long; phyllaries of inner involucre and base of the rays reddish‑brown at anthesis; heads many; achenes wingless; pappus wanting; leaf segments filiform to linear (s = 2x; x = 13)

...........  C. tinctoria - plains or golden tickseed.


1.   Phyllaries of outer involucre more than 2 mm long; phyllaries of inner involucre greenish at anthesis; heads solitary or several; achenes winged; pappus present.


2.     Leaves sessile, palmately 3‑ to 5‑lobed (very rarely simple and linear‑oblong); achenes narrowly winged, essentially glabrous (s = 2x; x = 13)

....  C. palmata - finger or prairie tickseed.


2.    Basal leaves petioled, simple or pinnately parted, oblanceolate to spatulate; achenes broadly winged, dorsally papillate.


3.    Plants essentially leafy throughout; upper leaves pinnatifid (appearing whorled) , the segments linear to narrowly lanceolate, the lowermost entire, spatulate to oblanceolate; peduncles normally less than 1.5 dm long (s = 2x + 0-2B; x = 13) .

....  C. grandiflora - big- or large-flowered tickseed.


3.    Leaves mostly on the lower half of the stem, simple or with 1 or 2 pairs of lateral lobes, long petioled, spatulate or oblanceolate (not appearing whorled above); peduncles normally (1‑) 1.5‑3.5 dm long (s = 2x + 0-4B; x = 13) .

....  C. lanceolata - long-stalk or sand tickseed.



COSMOS - cosmos


(s = 2x; x = 12)


........  C. bipinnatus - common garden cosmos.




DYSSODIA - fetid marigold


(s = 2x; x = 13)


........  D. papposa - stinking or fetid marigold.



ECHINACEA - coneflower


(Sources: Fernald, 1950; Gleason & Cronquist, 1991; FNA, 2006.)


(s = 2x; x = 11)


1.   Leaves broadly to narrowly ovate, rounded at base; blades mostly less than 5 times as long as wide, usually more than 5 cm wide; rays spreading; stems from a coarsely fibrous-rooted crown, caudex, or short stout rhizome

...........  E. purpurea - eastern purple coneflower.


1.   Leaves lanceolate to lance-linear, attenuate at base; blades mostly more than 5 times as long as wide, usually less than 5 cm wide; rays drooping; stems from a strong taprooot

.... E. pallida - prairie or pale purple coneflower.





(s = 2x; x = 11)


........  E. prostrata (E. alba) - yerba‑de‑tajo.



GALINSOGA - quickweed


(x = 8)


1.   Ray florets' pappus of scales about as long as the tube; scales of disk florets' pappus tapering to a very sharp point; marginal achenes densely hispid on inner faces (s = 4x)

...........  G. quadriradiata (G. ciliata) - common quickweed.


1.   Ray florets' pappus absent or nearly so; scales of disk florets' pappus obtuse and fimbriate at tip; marginal achenes glabrous, at most merely pilose at summit (s = 2x)

...........  G. parviflora - lesser quickweed.




HELIANTHUS - sunflower


(Source: T. E. Melchert and Hugh H. Iltis, 1976, based on T. E. Melchert's MS Thesis, 1960; FNA, 2006; edited by R. R. Kowal, 2006 Aug 2.)


(Very rare waif: H. salicifolius - willow-leaved sunflower.)


(x = 17)


(Species boundaries are often obscured by natural hybridization and polyploidy.  The entire plant should be collected, with special attention and effort directed

towards obtaining the underground parts, which often offer critical characters.)


1.   Annuals; disk, when in flower, usually brown or purple-black, 1.5‑4 cm broad (when yellow, then 3‑40 cm broad); upper leaves alternate.


2.    Phyllaries broadly ovate or lance-ovate, usually 5 mm or more wide, usually ABRUPTLY NARROWED to acuminate tips, ciliate with hairs that are decidedly longer than those on the bract surface; leaf blades frequently cordate, serrate; central receptacular bracts hispid (s = 2x) 

....  H. annuus - common sunflower.


2.    Phyllaries lanceolate or narrowly ovate, usually less than 5 mm wide, gradually tapering to acute or acuminate tips, ciliate with hairs that are about as long as those on the bract surface; leaf blades truncate or wedge-shaped, entire or nearly so; central receptacular bracts with long, white-villous tips; southern half and northwest Wisconsin (s = 2x)

....  H. petiolaris subsp. petiolaris - plains sunflower.


1.   Perennials; disk, when in flower, yellow (except in H. pauciflorus) , 1‑3 cm broad; upper leaves alternate or opposite.


3.    Leaves mostly basal, the stems slender, elongate, and scapose (nearly leafless); heads few, small, the disks mostly 1‑1.5 cm broad; common in sandy soil (s = 2x)

....  H. occidentalis var. occidentalis - naked-stemmed or western sunflower.


3.    Plants leafy throughout, though leaves reduced upwards in H. pauciflorus and H. laetiflorus; stems coarse.


4.    Leaves rounded to sessile or very short-petioled bases, mostly opposite, their petioles, when developed, rarely 5 mm long.


5.   Leaves cordate to subcordate, sessile, usually somewhat CLASPING, copiously villous throughout; very rare adventive (s = 2x)         

........  H. mollis - ashy or downy sunflower.


5.   Leaves usually not clasping, glabrous, scabrous, short pilose or hirsute.


6.  Stem glabrous, often glaucous; leaves horizontally divergent, sessile, their long lateral veins joining midrib at very base of blade (s = 2x)  

....  H. divaricatus - woodland sunflower.


6.  Stem scabrous to hirsute; leaves divergent to subascending, sessile or short-petioled, their long lateral veins joining midrib slightly above base of blade (s = 4x)  

....  H. hirsutus - hairy sunflower.


4.    Leaves tapering to base, if strongly rounded, petioles more than 5 mm long.


7.    Phyllaries STRONGLY APPRESSED, SHORTER THAN THE DISK (rarely over 10 mm long) , oblong to ovate, glabrous or nearly so, the margins sometimes ciliate; leaves narrowly lanceolate to subrhombic, rigid, scabrous, usually strongly reduced upward; stems usually rough throughout.


8.  Phyllaries ovate with acute tips, glabrate to hispid; disk red-purple (s = 6x)  

....  H. pauciflorus (H. rigidus) - stiff sunflower.


9.  Leaves usually alternate distally, blades oblong-lanceolate to lance-ovate, 8‑27 cm long, apices acuminate; plants 0.8‑2 m tall       

......  subsp. pauciflorus.


9.  Leaves all opposite, blades rhombic-ovate to lance-linear, 5‑12 cm long, apices acute to obtuse; plants 0.5‑1.2 m tall       

......  subsp. subrhomboidius.


8.  Phyllaries oblong lanceolate with acuminate tips, usually hairy; disk yellow (s = 6x)  

....  H. laetiflorus (H. pauciflorus H. tuberosus) - cheerful sunflower.


7.    Phyllaries loose, ovate-lanceolate to attenuate, with acute to acuminate SPREADING TIPS, usually equaling or exceeding the disk, generally pubescent; leaves opposite, alternate or both, only moderately reduced upward.


10.  Roots usually CONSPICUOUSLY THICKENED, fusiform and fascicled, OR with short thickened rhizomes, the rhizomes not elongate; leaves usually alternate, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, mostly 1‑3 (‑4) cm wide, tapering to sessile or petioled bases.


11.  Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, entire or nearly so, frequently folded along the midrib; roots from a short thickened rhizome; stem copiously rough-pubescent throughout (whitened underneath the heads); heads normally in a racemose inflorescence; uncommon adventive (s = 2x)       

......  H. Maximilianii - Maximillian's sunflower.


11.  Leaves lance-linear to lanceolate, serrate, flat; roots short, usually conspicuously thickened, somewhat fascicled, never with elongate rhizomes; stem glabrous OR scabrous with short, scattered hairs.


12.  Petioles prominent, 1.5‑4 cm long; stems glabrous, OFTEN GLAUCOUS, the uppermost parts sometimes sparsely pubescent; lower leaf surfaces with short, dense, appressed pubescence, OFTEN WHITENED (s = 2x)

...........  H. grosseserratus - saw-tooth sunflower.


12.  Petioles 0‑1.5 cm long; stem usually pubescent with short scabrous hairs; lower leaf surface with scattered, or occasionally rather dense, harsh, ascending pubescence, never whitened (s = 2x)

...........  H. giganteus - swamp or giant sunflower.


10.  Roots NOT THICKENED, CORD-LIKE; leaves USUALLY OPPOSITE, if alternate, then more than 3 cm wide.


13.  Leaves OPPOSITE BELOW, ALTERNATE ABOVE, usually BROADLY lance-ovate to ovate, abruptly tapering to rather long, usually winged, petioles.


14.  Rhizomes frequently tuber-bearing; stem rough-pubescent throughout; leaves coarse, the lower surface densely pubescent, USUALLY VELUTINOUS; PHYLLARIES FREQUENTLY DARK GREEN OR BLACKISH (s = 6x)

...........  H. tuberosus - Jerusalem-artichoke.


14.  Rhizomes not tuber-bearing; stem smooth; leaves thin, coarsely toothed, the lower surface essentially glabrous, or slightly scabrous; phyllaries light green, frequently considerably exceeding the disk, leaf-like (s = 2x, 4x)

...........  H. decapetalus - forest or pale sunflower.


13.  Leaves essentially OPPOSITE THROUGHOUT, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, the blades often contracted at the base to a short unwinged petiole OR abruptly tapering to, and decurrent on, the petiole. 


15.  Rhizomes frequently producing TUBERS (late in growing season); STEMS NORMALLY SCABROUS or HISPID throughout or smooth near the base; LEAVES USUALLY VELUTINOUS BENEATH; phyllaries not greatly exceeding the disk, USUALLY DARK GREEN or blackish at maturity, with conspicuous white cilia (s = 6x)

...........  H. tuberosus - Jerusalem-artichoke.


15.  Rhizomes elongate, often woody, not tuber-bearing; stems ESSENTIALLY GLABROUS OR scabrous on the upper internodes; leaves either thin, the lower surface glabrous to slightly scabrous, OR coarse, the lower surface slightly to densely scabrous or grayed with soft, appressed pubescence; phyllaries equaling to greatly exceeding the disk, not dark green.


16.  Leaves thin, the blades TAPERING to and decurrent on the often winged petiole; lower leaf surface essentially glabrous to lightly scabrous; leaf margins coarsely to moderately serrate; phyllaries, often leaflike, exceeding the disk (s = 2x, 4x)     

....  H. decapetalus - forest or pale sunflower.


16.  Leaves coarse, the blades normally ABRUPTLY CONTRACTED at the base to a short unwinged petiole or slightly decurrent on the petiole; lower leaf surface densely to slightly scabrous OR grayed with soft, dense, appressed or ascending pubescence; leaf margins moderately serrate to subentire; phyllaries not leaflike, equaling or exceeding the disk (s = 4x, 6x)     

....  H. strumosus - rough-leaved sunflower.



HELIOPSIS - ox‑eye


(s = 2x; x = 14)


........  H. helianthoides - false sunflower, ox‑eye.


1.   Leaf blades ovate, 8‑12 (‑15) cm long 4‑8 (‑12) cm wide, abaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent, adaxially glabrous or minutely scabrellous; E North America

.........  var. helianthoides.


1.   Leaf blades deltate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 6‑12 cm long 2‑5 cm wide, both surfaces scabrellous to scabrous; central North America

................  var.scabra.




MADIA - tarweed


(s = 4x; x = 7)


........  M. glomerata - mountain or stinking tarweed.





(s = 8x; x = 9)


........  P. integrifolium - wild‑quinine, eastern feverfew.



POLYMNIA - leaf-cup


(s = 2x; x = 15)


........  P. canadensis - pale-flowered leaf-cup.



RATIBIDA - prairie coneflower


(s = 2x; x = 14)


1.   Head ellipsoid‑globose, shorter than rays; leaflets 5‑20 mm wide; pappus none

...........  R. pinnata - globular or yellow coneflower.


1.   Head elongate columnar, as long as or longer than rays; leaflets mostly 2‑5 mm wide; pappus of 1 or 2 teeth

...........  R. columnifera - columnar or long-headed coneflower.



RUDBECKIA - black‑eyed susan, coneflower


1.   Pappus absent; style appendages elongate; leaves simple, densely hirsute or hispid (s = 2x; x = 19)

....  R. hirta var. pulcherrima - black-eyed Susan.


1.   Pappus coroniform, to 0.2 mm long (to 1.5 mm long or of 4 scales in R. laciniata); style appendages short and blunt; lower leaves unlobed, 3‑lobed, 3‑cleft, or laciniate, not densely hirsute.


2.    Stem essentially glabrous; lower leaves very large, deeply laciniate; disk yellow‑brown, the rays yellow, drooping (s = 2x, 3x; x = 18) .

....  R. laciniata var. laciniata - cutleaf coneflower, wild golden glow.


2.    Stem pubescent; lower leaves at most 3‑lobed or cleft; disk brownish‑black.



3.    Bracts of receptacle (chaff) cuspidate, with awn-like tips 1.5 mm or more long, glabrous; lower leaves usually 3(‑5)-lobed (s = 2x, 3x; x = 19) 

....  R. triloba - brown-eyed Susan.


3.    Bracts of receptacle acute, obtuse or rounded, glabrous or canescent at tip; lower leaves unlobed or 3(‑5)-lobed.


4.   Bracts of receptacle obtuse to acute, glabrous or rarely glabrate, at most with ciliolate margin; leaves unlobed, strigose-hispid beneath (s = ca 4x; x = 19)         

........  R. fulgida var. speciosa - showy coneflower.


4.   Bracts of receptacle rounded, canescent near the tip; lower leaves usually 3(‑5)-lobed, densely pubescent (downy) beneath (s = 2x; x = 19)         

........  R. subtomentosa - sweet coneflower or black-eyed Susan.



SILPHIUM - rosinweed


(s = 2x; x = 7)


1.   Leaves and\or bracts alternate; leaves largest at or near the base of the stem, and these long-petioled and usually much longer than 3 dm, commonly up to 5‑6 dm long.


2.   Stem leafy, hirsute; leaves deeply laciniate

....  S. laciniatum - compass-plant.


2.   Stem essentially naked except for a few bracts, glabrous; leaves all basal, unlobed, broadly cordate, dentate

....  S. terebinthinaceum var. terebinthinaceum - prairie-dock.


1.   Leaves opposite, either sessile or perfoliate, roughly the same size up the stem and mostly less than 3 dm long.


3.   Leaves sessile, not perfoliate, slightly, if at all clasping, entire or slightly serrate; stem terete

....  S. integrifolium var. integrifolium - prairie rosin-weed.


3.   Leaves, or their petiolar bases, strongly connate‑perfoliate, grossly serrate; stem square

....  S. perfoliatum var. perfoliatum - cup-plant.



TAGETES - marigold


(s = 4x; x = 12)


........  Tagetes patula (T. erecta s.l.) - French marigold.






(s = 4x; x = 17)


........  V. alternifolia - wing-stem.

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