Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium



(R. R. Kowal, 2000 July 14‑31.

Sources: L. H. Shinners (May, 1941, unpublished) ,

Fernald, 1950; Johnson & Iltis, 1963, Gleason & Cronquist, 1991; Flora of North America Editorial Committee [FNA], 2006.)


                                                                 Excluded tribes.

Tribe Mutisieae: Adenocaulon bicolor - trail plant.  Reports from WI & MN unverified (FNA, 2006).

Tribe Calenduleae: Calendula officinalis - pot-marigold.  Doubtfully naturalized; not noted for WI & MN in FNA (2006).


  1. Flowers wind-pollinated, not showy; rays absent; florets and most heads unisexual; anthers not united; phyllaries typically connate, at least basally, where free (Iva), only 3‑5

 .........  Tribe 10a. HELIANTHEAE, subtribe AMBROSIINAE - ragweed subtribe.


  1. Flowers insect-pollinated, usually showy; rays present or absent; heads and most florets bisexual; anthers united; phyllaries free - IF wind-pollinated, phyllaries free, scarious and more than 5 (Artemisia).


2.    Heads ligulate (florets bisexual & with a 5‑toothed ligule); plants with milky sap

.........  Tribe 2. CICHORIEAE (LACTUCEAE) - chicory (lettuce) tribe.


2.    Heads radiate (with disk florets surrounded marginally by [pistillate or neuter] ray florets) OR disciform ("radiate" but with ray florets without rays) OR discoid (only disk florets); plants with watery sap.


3.    Heads discoid and corolla lobes of the disk florets at least (and usually well over) 4 times as long as wide [in some Centaurea=s the marginal disk florets are enlarged, splayed outward, and neuter (heads Aradiant@)]; plants and/or heads usually prickly, if not, corollas not yellow; receptacle densely bristly (naked in the prickly Onopordum); leaves alternate; style with a ring of hairs (sometimes merely with a thickened ring) below the branches (which are often connate); anthers tailed at base

 .........  Tribe 1. CARDUEAE (CYNAREAE) - thistle tribe.


3.    Heads various but corolla lobes of the disk florets less than 4 times as long as wide; neither plants nor heads prickly; receptacle various, rarely bristly; leaves various; style otherwise; anthers (except in Gnaphalieae and Inuleae) not tailed.


4.    Heads discoid and corollas never yellow; style-branches long and slender (thread-like) , conspicuously protruding from the corolla and often attractive; receptacle naked.


5.    Style-branches hispidulous, acute or acuminate at tip; corollas purple; inflorescence corymbose; leaves alternate

 .........  Tribe 3. VERNONIEAE - ironweed tribe.


5.    Style-branches merely papillate, blunt (to acutish) and sometimes thickened (clavate) towards the tip; corollas white, pink, rose or blue-violet; inflorescence various; leaves alternate, opposite or whorled

.........  Tribe 10b. EUPATORIEAE - boneset tribe.


4.    Heads various, but if discoid, corollas yellow (or at least creamy); style-branches much shorter (relative to their widths); receptacle various.


6.    Pappus of hairs or bristles; leaves alternate (in some Senecioneae directly from a rhizome).


7.    Phyllaries equal and in 1 row (sometimes with a few small bractlets below them); rays yellow or absent; style-branches mostly truncate, with a tuft of hairs at the end

 .........  Tribe 8. SENECIONEAE - groundsel tribe.


7.    Phyllaries in 2‑5 rows, equal or unequal, IF (rarely) in 1 row, with conspicuous white, pink, purple, or blue rays.


8.    Heads discoid or disciform; phyllaries scarious, either virtually entirely or at least at the tip for a third of their lengths [styles and anthers as in Inuleae]

.........  Tribe 5. GNAPHALIEAE - pussy's-toes tribe.


8.    Heads radiate (rays minute in Conyza); phyllaries not scarious or scarious only on the margins.


9.    Giant perennial herb 1‑3 m tall, with basal leaves often 1 m long, disk of head more than 2 cm wide, and rays more than 4 cm long, which are yellow, numerous, and narrowly linear; style branch slightly clavate and glabrous; anthers tailed at base; infrequently adventive

 .........  Tribe 4. INULEAE - elecampane tribe.


9.    Plant smaller in all parts; rays of various colors and shapes; style branch with a lanceolate or elongate-deltoid hairy appendage; anthers rounded at base

 .........  Tribe 6. ASTEREAE - aster tribe.


6.    Pappus absent OR of awns, scales, or teeth; leaves alternate or opposite.


10.  Phyllaries with scarious or hyaline margins; leaves alternate.


11.  Leaves entire, not aromatic; receptacle naked; style branch with a lanceolate or elongate-deltoid hairy appendage

 .........  Tribe 6. ASTEREAE (Boltonia) - aster tribe.



11.  Leaves toothed, lobed, or finely divided, often aromatic; receptacle chaffy or naked; style-branches mostly truncate, with a tuft of hairs at the end (like Senecioneae)

.........  Tribe 7. ANTHEMIDEAE - camomile tribe.


10.  Phyllaries not at all scarious or hyaline, OR IF SO, leaves opposite; leaves alternate or opposite.


12.  Receptacle naked; rays present, widest at the prominently 3‑lobed apex; leaves alternate and lanceolate to narrowly elliptic

.........  Tribe 9. HELENIEAE - sneezeweed tribe.


12.  Receptacle chaffy (absent in Dyssodia, with unremarkable rays and opposite pinnatisect leaves); rays present or absent, but when present usually not as above, but BUT IF SO, then the leaves opposite and either lobed or pinnatifid

.........  Tribe 10. HELIANTHEAE - sunflower tribe.


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