Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium


WISCONSIN ASTERACEAE

 

DESCRIPTIONS OF TRIBES OF ASTERACEAE

 

(Heywood et al., 1977; Jeffrey, 1978; Bremer, 1994; et al.) 

[N.B.: Not up-dated since 1997.]

 

 

BARNEDESIOIDEAE

Basal branch of Compositae C 22 kb cpDNA inversion absent (unique within Compositae)

 

BARNEDESIEAE

9 genera & 92 species

Shrubs (or small trees or herbs)

Leaves alternate (most)

Axillary spines (frequent & unique)

Receptacle without bracts, usually pubescent

Corollas, achenes & pappus pappus bristles villous

Corollas "pseudobilabiate" (4 + 1, virtually unique) C also radial, bilabiate (3 + 2) & ligulate (5 + 0)

Corollas cyanic C or yellow

Anthers various

Pollen without spines

Styles shortly bilobed & glabrous

Pappus of villous bristles (most)

 

South American (exclusively), mostly the Andes

 

n = 8, 12, 27 6 25 6 24, 31; approximately 54, 50, & 48

x = 8 6 12; x = 9 implicitly (n = 27)?

 

Barnadesia

 

In WI: none

 

 

  CICHORIOIDEAE (sensu lato)

Probably paraphyletic

               Broad Tendencies

Benzopyrans & benzofurans absent (in all)

Latex present (though rare except in Lactuceae)

Leaves alternate

Receptacle naked, bristly (bracts rare)

Florets larger

Floret types: disk, bilabiate, ligulate.  Ray florets rare.

Corollas more deeply lobed, cyanic

Anthers

calcarate [anther sac extending below filament attachment],

commonly caudate [with a sterile extension],

appendage not constricted at base

Pollen lophate [with ridges], larger, with thinner exineand ecaveate pollen wall

Styles long and slender with hairs along length (outside) & even on shaft, stigmatic area continuous on inner surface along entire length (inside)


 

SUBFAMILIAL CLASSIFICATION UNCERTAIN

 

  MUTISIEAE

[Tarchonantheae perhaps better split off]

76 genera & 970 species

Receptacle naked (rarely chaffy)

Florets: bilabiate, disk, ligulate (few)

Corollas at least deeply lobed

Corolla cyanic (commonly)

Styles various, branches frequently short: Barnadesioid, vernonioid, truncate ("anthemoid"), but stigmatic area continuous on inner surface

Pappus bristles, rarely scales

 

South American (largely), especially Andes; pantropical.

 

x = 9 (commonest; x = 9 in Barnedesieae also [sic])

x = 4, 6, 8 through 18, 20 through 28, 54

 

Gerbera

 

In WI: none  [Adenocaulon in n MI & possibly MN]

 

 

  CARDUEAE - THISTLE TRIBE

["Cynareae", includes the Carlineae & Echinopeae]

83 species & 2,500 species

Herbs or shrublets

Often spiny (as in Mutisieae)

Leaves alternate

Receptacle densely setose (most)

Florets disk, ligulate (rare)

Anthers caudate (as in Mutisieae)

Corollas cyanic (most)

Anthers calcarate & with long tails

Filaments papillose or pilose (rare elsewhere)

Pollen spiny

Styles with thickened hairy ring below fork

Style branches connate below (often)

Receptacle bristly ( 6 chaffy or naked)

 

Predominantly Old World: Europe & North Africa (most), Asia (many)

 

n = 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19

 

Centaurea 600 sp.

Cousinia  600 sp.

 

In WI: 4 genera

 

 

TARCHONANTHEAE


 

 

  CICHORIOIDEAE (sensu stricto)

 

VERNONIEAE - IRONWEED TRIBE

98 genera & 1,300 species

Herbs to trees

Leaves alternate

Receptacle without scales (most)

Florets disk

Corollas cyanic (orange-yellow in one genus of Africa and Madegascar)

Anthers calcarate, ecaudate (most)

Pollen echinolophate or psilolophate

Style "vernonioid" branches attenuate & hispidulous outside (also in Lactuceae)

Pappus of bristles

 

Pantropical, especially Brazil and tropical Africa

 

x = 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13

 

Vernonia

Old World: n = 9 (ancestral?), 10

New World: n = 17

 

Vernonia 900 sp.

 

In WI: 1 genus

 

 

       LIABEAE

14 genera & 160 species

Perennial herbs, vines, shrubs (annuals & trees)

Latex (common)

Leaves opposite (never alternate)

Radiate heads (or discoid)

Yellow corollas

Styles vernonioid (minority)

Blunt tipped & fused except at tip

Anthers calcarate ‑- some caudate

Pollen spiny

Pappus double ‑- bristles surrounded by short bristles or scales

 

South America north to Mexico & West Indies (only): mainly Andean

 

x = 9

n = 7, 9 through 12, 14, 16 & 18

 

Munnozia x = 10

Liabum    x = 18

 

In WI: none

 

 

CHICORIEAE (LACTUCEAE) - CHICORY (LETTUCE) TRIBE

98 genera & 1550 species

Most distinctive tribe

Latex ‑- no resin ducts ("; + in roots only)

Heads ligulate (all)

Herbs

Leaves alternate (most)

Involucral bracts imbricate or subequal, in 1‑-2 series (frequently)

Receptacle naked (most)

Corollas yellow (most)

Anthers calcarate & caudate

Pollen lophate (")

Style branches long and evenly pilose externally

Pappus of bristles

 

Predominantly Northern Hemisphere: Central Asia, Mediterranean, western North America

 

x = 9

x = 4 & 5 possible

x = 3 - 11

 

Hieracium 800+ sp.

 

In WI: 12 genera

 

 

  ARCTOTEAE - GAZANIA TRIBE

[Includes the Eremothamneae]

"Radiate heads with styles of Cardueae"

16 genera & 200 species

Herbs to shrubs

Leaves alternate (virtually all)

Spiney leaves or involucre (often)

Heads radiate (most)

Receptacle naked (or chaffy)

Corollas yellow

Anthers calcarate, mostly ecaudate

Anther appendage constricted at base

Pollen spiney

Style branches connate to near tip, papillate

Style thickened below fork

Pappus scaley (most), never of bristles

 

Southern Africa largely; northward in Africa, Near East, one species in southern Australia

 

Subtribe    1   x = 9, 15

    "           2   x = 9

    "           3   x = 5, 7, 8 (x = 5 in Gazania)

 

Gazania

 

In WI: none


 

 

ASTEROIDEAE

Monophyletic

               Broad Tendencies

Synapomorphies

Benzofurans & benzopyrans

Latex absent (virtually all)

Ray florets

Disc corollas with short lobes

Pollen caveate

Stigmatic areas in two marginal bands on inner side of branches

Florets smaller

Corollas yellow

Anthers

ecalcarate

ecaudate

appendage constricted at base

Pollen spiny, never lophate, smalller, with thicker exine & caveate pollen wall

Styles shorter, with hairs restricted to the upper parts of the branches

Stigmatic area restricted to two marginal bands on inner surface, tip not stigmatic

Anthers ecalcarate & ecaudate

Anther appendages short & constricted at base

Pollen spiny

 

INULEAE - ELECAMPANE TRIBE

[Includes the Plucheeae]

38 + 28 genera & 480 + 220 species

Herbs to shrubs

Woodiness secondary ‑- secondary cambium

Leaves alternate

Heads radiate, often disciform or discoid

Rays yellow (when present)

Involucre not uniseriate

Anther base caudate (sagittate)

Style branches flattened

Marginal stigmatic lines, apically confluent

Glabrous or only papillate

Tip subtruncate or rounded

Pappus of scales or bristles

Receptacle chaffy or naked

Predominantly western Eurasia (Inusleae, s.s., and mainly tropical & subtropical (Plucheae)

 

x = 10, 9 (Inuleae?)

 

In WI: 1 genus

 

 

GNAPHALIEAE - PUSSY'S-TOES TRIBE

162 genera & 2,000 species

Herbs to shrubs

Heads disciform or discoid (rarely radiate)


 

Involucral bracts imbricate, scarious

Receptacle without scales (most)

Florets tending to be unisexual

Anthers caudate

Styles anthemoid (?)

Pappus of capillary bristles

Worldwide, particularly southern Africa & Australia

 

x = 7 (Gnalphalieae?)

 

Helichrysum 500 sp.

 

In WI: 3 genera

 

 

  CALENDULEAE - CALENDULA TRIBE

8 genera & 110 species

Like Senecioneae BUT

Pappus none

Achenes heteromorphic

 

Predominantly Africa, especially South Africa

 

x = 10

n = 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15

 

In WI: none

 

 

   ASTEREAE - ASTER TRIBE

174 genera & 2,800 species

Heads radiate, disciform or discoid

Involucre herbaceous 6 chartaceous

Receptacle naked (most)

Style branches appendiculate

Pappus various

Leaves not dissected (usually)

 

Worldwide, especially North and South America, southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and central Asia

 

x = 9

n = 9 6 2 in Brachycome and Haplopappus

 

Baccharis 400 sp.

Xanthocephalum complex

Aster, Solidago

Erigeron

Conyza

 

In WI: 5 genera

 


 

  ANTHEMIDEAE - CAMOMILE TRIBE

[includes the Ursinieae]

109 genera & 1,740 speciea

Heads radiate, disciform or discoid

Involucral bracts dry, scarcely herbaceous, hyaline‑scarious toward margins

Receptacle chaffy or naked

Style branches truncate & penicellate

Pappus none or small (never of capillary bristles

Leaves dissected (most)

Odor

Pollen

 

Worldwide (Palaearctic with 3/4 of species), especially central Asia, the Mediterranean & South Africa.

 

x = 9 but x = 8, 10, 13 & 17 occur

 

ChrysanthemumLeucanthemum

Artemisia 400 sp.

 

In WI: 7 genera

 

 

SENECIONEAE - GROUNDSEL TRIBE

120 genera & 3,200 species

Leaves alternate

Involucral bracts equal & uniseriate with tiny bracts at base

Style branches flattened

Marginal stigmatic lines

Tip truncate, penicillate

Receptacle naked (most)

Pappus capillary ( 6 none)

 

Tussilaginoid (Cacalioid) complex: Mexican region & eastern Asia

Senecionoid complex: cosmopolitan ‑‑ Andes, West Indies and southern and Tropical Africa

 

Woodiness secondary ‑- derived from herbs

 Dendrosenecio's

 Senecio praecox

 

x = 10

x = 30

 

Senecio 1500-2000 sp.

 

In WI: 4 genera

 

 

HELENIEAE - SNEEZEWEED TRIBE

110 genera & 830 species

Receptacle without scales (most) C "separates" from Heliantheae


 

Pappus of scales (most)

 

Mostly New World, especially North America

 

 

   TAGETEAE - MARIGOLD TRIBE

[Bremer (1994) puts in Helenieae]

23 genera & 240 species

Leaves generally dissected with pellucid secretory cavities C "they stink"

Involucral bracts in one or two (or three) rows, inner row often connate

Receptacle without scales

 

North and South America

 

 

COREOPSIDEAE - COSMOS TRIBE

[Bremer (1994) puts in Heliantheae]

24 genera & 505 species

Leaves opposite & often dissected

Involucral bracts in two rows, often dimorphic

Pappus of awns, a crown, or absent

 

Worldwide

 

 

HELIANTHEAE (s.l.) - SUNFLOWER TRIBE

[Helenieae, Tageteae & Coreopsideae now split out; includes the Athroisma group]]

189 genera & 2,500 species

Heads radiate 6 disciform 6 discoid

Resin ducts ‑- no latex

Corollas yellow (most)

Leaves opposite (tendency)

Pappus chaffy ( 6 none or hairy)

Receptacle chaffy ( 6 naked)

Involucral bracts herbaceous and several‑seriate 6 various

Style branches " hispidulous, stigmatic lines poorly defined

Anther base obtuse 6 sagittate

Rays large and broad

 

Americas (mostly)

Dry highlands of central Mexico' center of diversity

Many woody

Wood unspecialized (also Vernonieae + Mutisieae)

 

Verbesininae line x = 15, 16, 17

Galinsoginae line x = 8, 9

Coreopsidinae     x = 12

 

x = 8, 9 for tribe

Widest range of chromosome numbers

 

In WI: 15 genera


 

 

EUPATORIEAE - BONESET TRIBE

Leaves opposite (most)

Heads discoid

Corollas not yellow

Receptacle naked (most)

Style branches with long sterile appendages, which are obtuse and often clavate ‑- and not hairy

Pollen

 

New World (almost all): tropics & subtropics (most)

 

x = 17 (ex Heliantheae with x = 17-19) 6 x = 10 (Watanabe et al., 1995)

x = 10 [the commonest number and previously thought to be the base number]

groups: n = 10

n =  9

n = 11-12

n = 16-18

 

Eupatorium 600

 

In WI: 3 genera


         
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