Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium






Genera are arranged alphabetically within tribes.

Taxa enclosed in square brackets are not included in the flora of Wisconsin.



Tribe 1.  CARDUEAE (CYNAREAE) - thistle tribe



A. (Centaurea) repens - Russian knapweed


ARCTIUM - burdock

A. Lappa - great burdock

A. minus - common burdock

A. tomentosum - hairy burdock, cotton burdock


CARDUUS - plumeless thistle

C. acanthoides - plumeless thistle

C. nutans - nodding thistle


CENTAUREA - star-thistle, batchelor's button

C. (Cnicus) benedicta - blessed thistle

C. Cyanus - bachelor's-button, cornflower

[C. diffusa - white knapweed.  Extremely rare adventive.]

C. Jacea - brown knapweed

C. nigra - black knapweed

C. nigrescens - short-fringed knapweed

C. macrocephala - big-head knapweed

C. melitensis - Maltese star-thistle

C. HMonctonii (C. Debauxii) - meadow knapweed

C. montana - mountain bluet

C. Scabiosa - hard-heads

C. solstitialis - yellow star-thistle, St. Barnaby's thistle

C. Stoebe subsp. micranthos (C. maculosa, C. Biebersteinii) - spotted knapweed


CIRSIUM - thistle

C. altissimum - wood thistle

C. arvense - Canada thistle

C. discolor - prairie thistle

C. Flodmanii - Flodman's thistle

C. muticum - swamp thistle

C. palustre - European swamp thistle

C. Pitcheri - dune thistle

C. pumilum var. Hillii (C. Hillii) - Hill's thistle

C. undulatum - wavy-leaved thistle

C. vulgare - bull thistle


ECHINOPS - globe-thistle

E. sphaerocephalus - great globe-thistle


ONOPORDUM - cotton or Scotch thistle

O. Acanthium - Scotch thistle



P. (Centaurea) americanus - basketflower



Tribe 2.  CICHORIEAE (LACTUCEAE) - chicory (lettuce) tribe


CICHORIUM - chicory

C. Intybus - chicory, blue sailors


CREPIS - hawk's-beard

C. capillaris - smooth hawk's-beard

[C. foetida - stinking hawk's-beard.  Very rare waif.]

C. setosa - bristly hawk's-beard

C. tectorum - narrow-leaved hawk's-beard


HIERACIUM - hawkweed

H. aurantiacum - orange hawkweed, devil's paintbrush

H. caespitosum (H. pratense) - yellow king-devil

H. Lachenallii (H. vulgatum) - European hawkweed

H. longipilum - long-haired or prairie hawkweed

[H. murorum - wall hawkweed.  Not noted for WI & MN in FNA (2006).]

H. Pilosella - mouse-ear hawkweed

H. piloselloides (H. florentinum) - glaucous king-devil

H. scabrum - sticky hawkweed

H. umbellatum (H. Kalmii, H. scabriusculum) - northern hawkweed


HYPOCHAERIS - cat's-ear

H. radicata - spotted cat's-ear


KRIGIA - dwarf-dandelion

K. biflora - orange dwarf-dandelion

K. virginica - Virginia dwarf-dandelion


LACTUCA - lettuce

L. biennis - woodland or tall blue lettuce

L. canadensis - tall wild lettuce

L. floridana - woodland or blue lettuce

L. ludoviciana - prairie lettuce

L. serriola - prickly lettuce


LAPSANA - nipplewort

L. communis - nipplewort


LEONTODON - hawkbit

L. autumnalis - fall-dandelion

L. taraxicoides subsp. saxatilis (L. taraxicoides) - little hawk's-bit



M. (Lactuca) pulchellum (L. tatarica subsp. pulchella) - showy blue lettuce



N. (Microseris) cuspidata - prairie or false dandelion


PRENANTHES - white-lettuce

P. alba - white-lettuce, rattlesnake root, lion's foot

P. aspera - rough white-lettuce

P. crepidinea - Midwestern white-lettuce

P. racemosa - glaucous white-lettuce


SONCHUS - sow-thistle

S. arvensis

subsp. arvensis - perennial sow-thistle

subsp. uliginosus (var. glabrescens) - marsh sow-thistle

S. asper - prickly sow-thistle

S. oleraceus - common sow-thistle


TARAXACUM - dandelion

T. erythrospermum (T. laevigatum) - red-seeded dandelion

T. officinale - common dandelion


TRAGOPOGON - goat's-beard

T. dubius - fistulose goat's-beard

T. porrifolius - salsify, vegetable-oyster

T. pratensis - showy goat's-beard



Tribe 3.  VERNONIEAE - ironweed tribe


VERNONIA - ironweed

V. fasciculata - smooth ironweed



Tribe 4.  INULEAE - elecampane tribe



I. Helenium - elecampane



Tribe 5.  GNAPHALIEAE - pussy's-toes tribe


ANTENNARIA - pussy's-toes, everlasting, ladies'-tobacco

A. Howellii

subsp. canadensis

subsp. neodioica

subsp. petaloidea

A. neglecta

A. Parlinii - Parlin's pussy's-toes

subsp. fallax (A. munda)

subsp. Parlinii

A. plantaginifolia - plantain-leaved pussy's-toes


ANAPHALIS - everlasting

A. margaritacea - pearly everlasting


GNAPHALIUM - marsh cudweed

G. (Fillaginella) uliginosum - marsh cudweed


PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM - cudweed, everlasting

Ps. (Gnaphalium) Macounii - western or clammy cudweed

Ps. microdenium (Gnaphalium Helleri var. microdenium) - delicate cudweed

Ps. (Gnaphalium) obtusifolium - fragrant cudweed

Ps. (Gnaphalium) saxicola - cliff cudweed


OMALOTHECA - Arctic-cudweed

O. (Gnaphalium) sylvatica - woodland Arctic-cudweed



Tribe 6.  ASTEREAE - aster tribe



B. perennis - English daisy



B. asteroides var. recognita - false aster



[Callistephus chinensis - China aster.  Garden escape; not in FNA (2006).]



C. canadensis - horse-weed

C. ramosissima - dwarf fleabane


DOELLINGERIA - aster  ["ASTER" key]

D. umbellata

var. umbellata - tall flat-topped white aster

var. pubens (Aster pubentior) - northwestern flat-topped white aster


EURYBIA - aster  ["ASTER" key]

E. furcata - midwestern white heart-leaved aster

E .macrophylla - big-leaved aster


ERIGERON - fleabane

E. annuus - annual fleabane

E. glabellus - stream-side fleabane

E. pulchellus var. pulchellus - Robin's plantain

E. philadelphicus - common fleabane

E. strigosus vars. septentrionalis & strigosus - prairie or daisy fleabane


EUTHAMIA - flat-topped goldenrod

E. caroliniana (E. tenuifolia) - coastal plain flat-topped goldenrod

E. graminifolia - grass-leaved or common flat-topped goldenrod

E. gymnospermoides - Great Plains flat‑topped goldenrod


GRINDELIA - gumweed

G. lanceolata - spiny-tooth gumweed

G. squarrosa - curly-cup gumweed



H. villosa - hairy golden aster

var. Ballardii

var. minor

var. villosa


IONACTIS - aster  ["ASTER" key]

I. linariifolia - flax-leaved aster


SOLIDAGO - goldenrod

S. altissima - Canada goldenrod

S. bicolor - white goldenrod

S. caesia - axillary or blue-stemmed goldenrod

S. canadensis - Canada goldenrod

var. canadensis

var. Hargeri

S. flexicaulis - broad-leaved or zigzag goldenrod

S. gigantea - smooth goldenrod

S. hispida - hairy goldenrod

S. juncea - early goldenrod

S. nemoralis - gray or old-field goldenrod

var. nemoralis

var. decemflora

S. missouriensis - Missouri goldenrod

S. mollis - velvety goldenrod

S. ohioensis - Ohio goldenrod

S. patula var. patula - rough-leaved or swamp goldenrod

S. (Aster) ptarmicoides (S. asteroides) - upland white aster or goldenrod

S. Riddellii - Riddell's goldenrod

S. rigida subsp. rigida & humilis - stiff goldenrod

S. rugosa - wrinkle-leaved goldenrod

S. sciaphila - cliff goldenrod

S. simplex [subsp. Randii] var. Gillmanii - dune goldenrod

S. speciosa - showy goldenrod

var. speciosa

var. rigidiuscula

S. uliginosa - northern bog goldenrod

S. ulmifolia var. ulmifolia - elm-leaved goldenrod



S. boreale - rush or northern bog aster

S. ciliatum (Aster Brachyactis) - alkali rayless aster

S. ciliolatum - northern heart-leaved aster

S. cordifolium - common blue arrow-leaved aster

S. Drummondii - hairy arrow-leaved aster

S. dumosum complex ("var. strictior") - long-stalked aster

S. ericoides var. ericoides

S. falcatum var. commutatum - white prairie aster

S. firmum - shining aster

S. laeve - smooth blue aster

S. laeve var. laeve - smooth blue aster

S. lanceolatum

var. hesperium (S. hesperium) - western lined aster

var. hirsuticaule - panicled or eastern lined aster

var. interior - inland panicled aster

var. lanceolatum - panicled or eastern lined aster

var. latifolium - panicled or eastern lined aster

S. lateriflorum - starved, calico, white woodland or side-flowering aster

S. novae-angliae - New England aster

S. oblongifolium - aromatic aster

S. ontarionis  [sic] - bottomland or Ontario aster

S. oolentangiense (Aster azureus) - prairie heart-leaved aster

S. pilosum - awl aster

var. pilosum

var. Pringlei

S. praealtum - willow-leaved aster

S. prenanthoides - zigzag aster

S. puniceum - bristly or swamp aster

S. racemosum (S. fragilis) - brittle aster

S .Robynsianum (Aster longifolius) - long-leaved blue aster

S. Shortii - midwestern blue heart-leaved aster

S. sericeum - silky aster

S. urophyllum (Aster sagittifolius) - arrow-leaved aster



Tribe 7.  ANTHEMIDEAE - chamomile tribe


ACHILLEA - yarrow

A. Millefolium - common yarrow, milfoil

subsp. Millefolium

subsp. lanulosa

A. Ptarmica - sneezeweed


ANTHEMIS - chamomile, dog-fennel

A. arvensis - corn chamomile

A. Cotula - dog-fennel, stinking camomile


ARTEMISIA - wormwood

A. Abrotanum - southernwood

A. Absinthium - common wormwood, absinthe sage-wort

A. annua - annual wormwood or sage-wort

A. biennis - biennial wormwood or sage-wort.

A. campestris subsp. caudata - field wormwood or sage-wort, beach wormwood

A. Dracunculus - tarragon, estragon

A. frigida - prairie sage-wort

A. ludoviciana subsp. ludoviciana - white sage, western mugwort

A. pontica - Roman wormwood

A. serrata - saw-tooth wormwood

A. Stelleriana - beach wormwood, dusty miller

A. vulgaris - mugwort, common wormwood


COTA - marguerite

C. (Anthemis) tinctoria - golden marguerite, yellow chamomile



L. (Chrysanthemum) serotina - giant daisy



L. vulgare (C. Leucanthemum) - common or ox-eye daisy


MATRICARIA - wild chamomile

M. discoidea (M. matricarioides) - pineapple-weed

M. Chamomilla (M. recutita) - sweet false camomile


TANACETUM - tansy   [ACHRYSANTHEMUM" key p.p.]

T. (Chrysanthemum) Balsamita (Balsamita major) - costmary, mint-geranium

T. bipinnatum subsp. huronense - eastern or Lake Huron tansy

T. (Chrysanthemum) Parthenium - feverfew

T. vulgare - common tansy, golden-buttons



T. (Matricaria) maritimum - scentless camomile



Tribe 8.  SENECIONEAE - groundsel tribe


ARNOGLOSSUM - Indian-plantain

A. atriplicifolium - pale Indian-plantain

A. plantagineum - prairie or tuberous Indian-plantain

A. reniforme - great Indian‑plantain


ERECHTITES - fireweed

E. hieraciifolius - fireweed


HASTEOLA - Indian-plantain

H. suaveolens - sweet or hastate Indian-plantain


PACKERA - ragwort

P. aurea - golden ragwort

P. indecora - northern squaw-weed, rayless ragwort

P. paupercula - northern ragwort

"Northern tetraploid complex

var. paupercula

var. pseudotomentosa

var. savannarum

P. paupercula var. savannarum + P. plattensis?

P. plattensis - prairie ragwort

P. pseudaurea var. semicordata (P. semicordata) - heart-leaved ragwort


SENECIO - groundsel

 S. sylvaticus - woodland groundsel

 S. viscosus - sticky groundsel

 S. vulgaris - common groundsel


PETASITES - sweet-coltsfoot

P. frigidus var. palmatus - northern sweet-coltsfoot

P. sagittatus (P. frigidus var. sagittatus) - arrowhead sweet-coltsfoot



T. congestus - marsh-fleabane, northern swamp groundsel


TUSSILAGO - coltsfoot

T. Farfara - coltsfoot



Tribe 9.  HELENIEAE - sneezeweed tribe


HELENIUM - sneezeweed

H. amarum var. amarum - bitter-weed, narrow-leaved sneezeweed

H. autumnale L. - common sneezeweed

H. flexuosum - purple-head or southern sneezeweed


GAILLARDIA - blanket-flower

G. aristata - common blanket-flower




Tribe 10.  HELIANTHEAE (s.l.) - sunflower tribe


BIDENS - beggar-ticks, stick‑tight

B. aristosa - mid-western tickseed-sunflower

B. (Megalodonta) Beckii - water beggar-ticks or water-marigold

B. cernua - nodding beggar-ticks or bur-marigold

B. connata - purple-stem beggar-ticks or tickseed

B. discoidea - few-bracted or swamp beggar-ticks

B. frondosa - devil's or common beggar-ticks

[B. pilosa - Spanish needles.  Rare waif.  Not in FNA (2006).]

B. trichosperma (B. coronata) - northern tick-seed sunflower, tall swamp-marigold

B. tripartita (B. comosa) - straw-stem beggar-ticks, swamp-marigold

B. vulgata - tall beggar-ticks


COREOPSIS - coreopsis, tickseed

C. grandiflora - big- or large-flowered tickseed

C. lanceolata - long-stalk or sand tickseed

C. palmata - finger or prairie tickseed

C. tinctoria - plains or golden tickseed


COSMOS - cosmos

C. bipinnatus - common garden cosmos


DYSSODIA - fetid marigold

D. papposa - stinking or fetid marigold


ECHINACEA - coneflower

E. pallida - prairie or pale purple coneflower

E. purpurea - prairie or pale purple coneflower



E. prostrata (E. alba) - yerba‑de‑tajo


GALINSOGA - quickweed

G. parviflora - lesser quickweed

G. quadriradiata (G. ciliata) - common quickweed



[G. abyssinica - niger-seed.  Very rare waif, presumably from bird seed.]


HELIANTHUS - sunflower

H. annuus - common sunflower

H. decapetalus - forest or pale sunflower

H. divaricatus - woodland sunflower

H. giganteus - swamp or giant sunflower

H. grosseserratus - saw-tooth sunflower

H. hirsutus - hairy sunflower

H. Hlaetiflorus (H. pauciflorus H. tuberosus) - cheerful sunflower

H. Maximilianii - Maximillian's sunflower

H. mollis - ashy or downy sunflower

H. occidentalis var. occidentalis - naked-stemmed or western sunflower

H. pauciflorus (H. rigidus) - stiff sunflower

var. pauciflorus

var. subrhomboidius

H. petiolaris subsp. petiolaris - plains sunflower

[H. salicifolius - willow-leaved sunflower.  Very rare waif.]

H. strumosus - rough-leaved sunflower

H. tuberosus - Jerusalem-artichoke


HELIOPSIS - ox‑eye

H. helianthoides - false sunflower, ox‑eye

var. helianthoides

var. scabra


MADIA - tarweed

M. glomerata - mountain or stinking tarweed



P. integrifolium - wild‑quinine, eastern feverfew


POLYMNIA - leaf-cup

P. canadensis - pale-flowered leaf-cup


RATIBIDA - prairie coneflower

R. columnifera - columnar or long-headed coneflower

R. pinnata - globular or yellow coneflower


RUDBECKIA - black‑eyed susan, coneflower

R. fulgida var. speciosa - showy coneflower

R. hirta var. pulcherrima - black-eyed Susan

R. laciniata var. laciniata - cutleaf coneflower, wild golden glow

R. triloba - brown-eyed Susan

R. subtomentosa - sweet coneflower or black-eyed Susan


SILPHIUM - rosinweed

S. integrifolium var. integrifolium - prairie rosin-weed

S. laciniatum - compass-plant

S. perfoliatum var. perfoliatum - cup-plant

S. terebinthinaceum var. terebinthinaceum - prairie-dock


TAGETES - marigold

T. patula - French marigold



V. alternifolia - wing-stem



Tribe 10a.  HELIANTHEAE (s.l.) subtribe  AMBROSIINAE


AMBROSIA - ragweed

A. artemisiifolia - common ragweed

A. psilostachya - western or perennial ragweed

A. tomentosa (Franseria discolor) - skeleton-leaf bur-sage

A. trifida - giant ragweed


IVA - marsh‑elder

I. annua - rough marsh-elder

I. axillaris - poverty-weed

I. (Cyclachaena) xanthifolia - big marsh-elder


XANTHIUM - cocklebur

X. spinosum - spiny cocklebur

X. strumarium - common cocklebur



Tribe 10b.  HELIANTHEAE (s.l.) subtribe EUPATORIINAE - boneset subtribe



A. altissima var. altissima (E. rugosum) - white snakeroot



B. (Kuhnia) eupatorioides var. corymbulosa - false boneset


EUPATORIUM - throughwort

E. altissimum - tall boneset

E. perfoliatum - common boneset, thoroughwort

forma truncatum

E. serotinum - late boneset

E. sessilifolium - upland or woodland boneset


EUTROCHIUM - Joe-Pye-weed

E. maculatum - spotted joe-pye-weed

E. purpureum - purple-node or green-stemmed joy-pye-weed


LIATRIS - blazing-star, gay-feather

L. aspera - lacerate or rough blazing-star

L. cylindracea - few-headed or cylindrical blazing-star

L. ligulistylis - northern plains or showy blazing-star

L. punctata var. punctata (var. nebraskana) - dotted blazing-star

L. pycnostachya - prairie or thick-spike blazing-star

L. spicata - sessile or marsh blazing-star

Botany News/Events
Book We Recommend
Historical Botanists
Other Links
Botanical Club of Wisconsin (off site)
UW-Stevens Point Biology Dept.
Plants of Wisconsin
Vascular Plants
Natural Communities
Botany News/Events
Other Links
Lichens (off site)   
Tom Volk's Fungi (off site)
Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
                          Vascular Plants
Browse by Identification Guides
Family Wildflowers
Genus Trees
Common Names Shrubs
Search by Vines
Names Aquatic-Semi aquatic
Specimens Ferns - Fern Allies
Blooming Times Grasses, Sedges, or Rushes
County & Status Other Resources  
Town Range Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
  WI Checklist & CofC Values
Browse by:
Common Name
Search by:
Copyright 2012 Permissions Contact Us Web Map